The long-term trajectory of depression among Latinos in primary care and its relationship to depression care disparities.
ABSTRACT Lower use of medication treatment, poorer doctor-patient communication (DPC) and depression stigma are key contributors to mental healthcare disparities among Latinos with depression. The current study investigated the relationship between these key variables and the long-term trajectory of depression in primary care among Latinos.
Participants (N=220) were Latinos presenting to primary care who screened positive for depression. A repeated measures design was used to assess participants at baseline and 6, 25 and 30 months. Repeated measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-reported quality of DPC and stigma pertaining to antidepressants. Using growth curve modeling, participants' depressive symptom trajectories were examined for a 30-month period. Self-reported utilization of antidepressants, DPC and antidepressant stigma were examined as predictors of the depressive symptom trajectory. In addition, rates of depression improvement/remission and recurrence/relapse were examined.
Improvement/remission was experienced by 69.4% of participants during a 30-month period. Among those who improved/remitted at 6 or 25 months, 63.4% maintained that improvement/remission by 30 months. The long-term trajectory of depressive symptoms demonstrated a significant positive association with antidepressant stigma and significant negative associations with use of antidepressant treatment and quality DPC.
While relapse/recurrence is common, most Latinos in this study experienced improvement in depression over 30 months. For many, there is a considerable time to reach improvement/remission. Also, these findings confirm the significance of antidepressant underutilization, DPC and stigma in the long-term outcome of depression among Latinos in primary care.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mike Gara, Apr 30, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Gilles Ambresin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depression screening in primary care yields high numbers. Knowledge of how depressive symptoms change over time is limited, making decisions about type, intensity, frequency and length of treatment and follow-up difficult. This study is aimed to identify depressive symptom trajectories and associated socio-demographic, co-morbidity, health service use and treatment factors to inform clinical care. METHODS: 789 people scoring 16 or more on the CES-D recruited from 30 randomly selected Australian family practices. Depressive symptoms are measured using PHQ-9 at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. RESULTS: Growth mixture modelling identified a five-class trajectory model as the best fitting (lowest Bayesian Information Criterion): three groups were static (mild (n=532), moderate (n=138) and severe (n=69)) and two were dynamic (decreasing severity (n=32) and increasing severity (n=18)). The mild symptom trajectory was the most common (n=532). The severe symptom trajectory group (n=69) differed significantly from the mild symptom trajectory group on most variables. The severe and moderate groups were characterised by high levels of disadvantage, abuse, morbidity and disability. Decreasing and increasing severity trajectory classes were similar on most variables. LIMITATIONS: Adult only cohort, self-report measures. CONCLUSIONS: Most symptom trajectories remained static, suggesting that depression, as it presents in primary care, is not always an episodic disorder. The findings indicate future directions for building prognostic models to distinguish those who are likely to have a mild course from those who are likely to follow more severe trajectories. Determining appropriate clinical responses based upon a likely depression course requires further research.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2013; 148(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.12.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Relative to non-Latino Whites, Latinos in the United States with major depressive disorder (MDD) show low engagement in antidepressant therapy, whether engagement is defined as pharmacotherapy access, medication initiation, pill-taking, or treatment retention. One potential reason for this disparity in depression care is the low cultural congruence of pharmacotherapy for this population. To examine Latinos' views of depression and antidepressant therapy, we conducted qualitative interviews with 30 Latino outpatients initiating antidepressants prior to their first treatment visit using the semistructured Treatment Adherence and Retention Questionnaire. These baseline interviews were randomly selected from data collected for a randomized controlled trial testing a novel intervention to enhance engagement by depressed Latino outpatients. Participant narratives were analyzed using open coding and the iterative analytical approach derived from grounded theory. Patient views about depression addressed stigmatizing views held by others in their social circle. Most participants directly refuted these views by providing alternate explanations to depression experiences. Antidepressant therapy narratives also revealed marked stigmatization, but participants tended not to refute these views. Instead, patients expressed concerns about antidepressants and showed marked ambivalence about seeking psychiatric care. Participants, however, did suggest ways in which clinicians and patients might collaborate to address their concerns about antidepressants. Some cultural views, such as concerns about addiction to or dependence on medication, may be negotiable barriers to treatment. Prescribing clinicians should address cultural views and concerns in order to improve Latino engagement in antidepressant therapy. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.Transcultural Psychiatry 03/2015; 52(2). DOI:10.1177/1363461515574159 · 0.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The unprecedented rates of global migration present unique challenges to mental health services in migrant receiving countries to provide efficacious and culturally salient treatment for mental health conditions including depression. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of depression interventions specifically directed towards first-generation immigrant populations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of original research published between 2000 and 2013 that investigated depression interventions in first generation immigrants. Results Fifteen studies were included; the majority focused on Latino immigrants living in the United States (US). Twelve studies investigated the use of psychotherapies; the remainder examined collaborative care models and physical exercise-based interventions. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation tended to improve depressive symptoms, especially when culturally adapted to suit clients while Problem Solving Therapy improved depressive symptomology with and without adaptations. Collaborative care and exercise did not significantly improve depressive symptoms. Conclusion Depression may be effectively treated by means of psychotherapies, especially when treatments are culturally adapted. However the reviewed studies were limited due to methodological weaknesses and were predominantly undertaken in the US with Latino patients. To improve generalizability, future research should be undertaken in non-US settings, amongst diverse ethnic groups and utilize larger sample sizes in either randomized clinical trials or observational cohort studies.BMC Psychiatry 06/2014; 14(1):176. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-176 · 2.24 Impact Factor