Incidence of hip fracture and prevalence of osteoporosis in Turkey: the FRACTURK study.
ABSTRACT The incidence of hip fractures in Turkey increased markedly from that reported in 1988/1989 so that FRAX® models for Turkey should be revised.
The MEDOS study in 1988/1989 reported that men and women from Turkey had exceptionally low rates of hip fracture. The aim of the FRACTURK study was to estimate current and future hip fracture risks and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Turkey.
Hip fracture cases in 2009 were identified from interviews of a population-based sample of 26,424 residents aged 50 years or more in 12 different regions of Turkey and in two hospital surveys. Bone mineral density was evaluated by DXA in an age-stratified sample of 1,965 men and women.
Hip fracture incidence in the community-based survey was similar to that in the hospital survey. The age-specific incidence in men and women was substantially higher than that reported for 1988/1989. At the age of 50 years, the remaining lifetime probability of a hip fracture was 3.5% in men and 14.6% in women. In 2009, there were approximately 24,000 hip fractures estimated in Turkey, 73% of which were found in women. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures was expected to increase to nearly 64,000 in 2035. The prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 7.5% and 33.3% in men and women, respectively, aged 50 years or more.
Although Turkey is still among the countries with low hip fracture rates in Europe, the incidence has increased markedly in the last 20 years. This finding can be used to recalibrate fracture risk assessment models for Turkey.
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ABSTRACT: A cross-national study of hip fracture incidence was carried out in five geographic areas--Beijing, China; Budapest, Hungary; Hong Kong; Porto Alegre, Brazil; and Reykjavik, Iceland--during the years 1990-1992. Cases of hip fracture among women and men of age 20 years and older were identified using hospital discharge data in conjunction with medical records, operating room logs, and radiology logs. Estimated incidence rates varied widely, with Beijing reporting the lowest rates (age-adjusted rate per 100,000 population for men 20 years and older = 45.4; women = 39.6) and Reykjavik the highest rates (man = 141.3; women = 274.1). Rates were higher for women than for men in every area except Beijing. In every area except Budapest, review of the operating room or radiology logs identified additional cases that were not reported in the discharge list, increasing the estimated number of hip fractures by 11% to 62%, depending on the area. Review of medical records identified miscoding of hip fractures (ICD 9820) as 'shaft of femur and other femur fractures' (ICD 9821) in the discharge lists of every area except Budapest, increasing the estimated number of hip fractures by 1% to 30%. The final estimates of hip fracture incidence taking into account all investigated sources of undercount and overcount ranged from 15% lower to 89% higher than an estimate based on the discharge diagnoses alone. Although these results indicate substantial limitations in relying on hospital discharge data alone to estimate hip fracture incidence rates, the extent of errors found in the discharge lists is smaller than the large international variation found here and previously reported in incidence rates. The findings support the conclusion that the differences reported among countries mainly reflect genuine variation in the hip fracture incidence rates.Osteoporosis International 02/1999; 9(3):242-53. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies on the association between physical activity and hip fractures are reviewed. All the studies, which comprise four follow-up studies, one nested case-control study and 17 case-control studies, suggest a protective effect of physical activity with regard to hip fractures. The association is strong and consistent with physical activity in leisure, weaker with respect to physical activity at work. The association is present for physical activity from childhood to adult age, and it is consistent in study populations from the USA, Australia, Asia and Northern and Southern Europe, in spite of very different hip fractures incidences in these populations. The magnitude of the association is difficult to assess because of varying criteria for exposure, but to be among the physically active seems to reduce the risk of later hip fracture by up to 50%. It seems that even daily chores, such as climbing stairs and walking, protect against hip fracture.Osteoporosis International 02/1997; 7(6):503-13. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 1994, the World Health Organization published diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis. Since then, many new technologies have been developed for the measurement of bone mineral at multiple skeletal sites. The information provided by each assessment will describe the clinical characteristics, fracture risk and epidemiology of osteoporosis differently. Against this background, there is a need for a reference standard for describing osteoporosis. In the absence of a true gold standard, this paper proposes that the reference standard should be based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement made at the femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This site has been the most extensively validated, and provides a gradient of fracture risk as high as or higher than that of many other techniques. The recommended reference range is the NHANES III reference database for femoral neck measurements in women aged 20-29 years. A similar cut-off value for femoral neck BMD that is used to define osteoporosis in women can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in men - namely, a value for BMD 2.5 SD or more below the average for young adult women. The adoption of DXA as a reference standard provides a platform on which the performance characteristics of less well established and new methodologies can be compared.Bone 04/2008; 42(3):467-75. · 3.82 Impact Factor