Cohort Profile: The international epidemiological databases to evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) in sub-Saharan Africa

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Switzerland, Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa, Programme PAC-CI, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, Epidemiology Branch, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA, Morogoro Regional Hospital, Morogoro, Tanzania, AMOCONGO ARV Ambulatory Treatment Center, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indiana University School of Medicine, IN, USA, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya, University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Toronto, Canada, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Durham, NC, USA, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia and INSERM U897, Institut de Santé Publique, Epidémiologie et Développement (ISPED), Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France.
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.2). 05/2011; 41(5):1256-1264. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyr080
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa, where viral load monitoring is routine, with those in Malawi and Zambia, where monitoring is based on CD4 cell counts. We included 18,706 adult patients starting ART in South Africa and 80,937 patients in Zambia or Malawi. We examined CD4 responses in models for repeated measures and the probability of switching to second-line regimens, mortality and loss to follow-up in multistate models, measuring time from 6 months. In South Africa, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-10.5] had switched at 3 years, 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.6) remained on failing first-line regimens, 9.2% (95% CI 8.5-9.8) were lost to follow-up and 4.3% (95% CI 3.9-4.8) had died. In Malawi and Zambia, more patients were on a failing first-line regimen [3.7% (95% CI 3.6-3.9], fewer patients had switched [2.1% (95% CI 2.0-2.3)] and more patients were lost to follow-up [15.3% (95% CI 15.0-15.6)] or had died [6.3% (95% CI 6.0-6.5)]. Median CD4 cell counts were lower in South Africa at the start of ART (93 vs. 132 cells/μl; P < 0.001) but higher after 3 years (425 vs. 383 cells/μl; P < 0.001). The hazard ratio comparing South Africa with Malawi and Zambia after adjusting for age, sex, first-line regimen and CD4 cell count was 0.58 (0.50-0.66) for death and 0.53 (0.48-0.58) for loss to follow-up. Over 3 years of ART mortality was lower in South Africa than in Malawi or Zambia. The more favourable outcome in South Africa might be explained by viral load monitoring leading to earlier detection of treatment failure, adherence counselling and timelier switching to second-line ART.
    AIDS (London, England) 06/2011; 25(14):1761-9. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328349822f · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal cancer (15-30 times), and lung cancer (4 times) are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs). Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore merits for integrating cancer research in established HIV programs to obtain timely data about the incidence and burden of cancer in HIV-infected persons in Africa.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 10/2011; 6(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-6-16 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data on outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in rural sub-Saharan African are scarce. We describe early losses and long-term outcomes in 6 rural programs in Southern Africa with limited access to viral load monitoring and second-line ART. Patients aged ≥16 years starting ART in 2 programs each in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Lesotho were included. We evaluated risk factors for no follow-up after starting ART and mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) over 3 years of ART, using logistic regression and competing risk models. Odds ratios and subdistribution hazard ratios, adjusted for gender, age category, CD4 category, and World Health Organization stage at start of ART are reported. Among 7725 patients, 449 (5.8%) did not return after initiation of ART. During 9575 person-years, 698 (9.6%) of those with at least 1 follow-up visit died, and 1319 (18.1%) were LTFU. At 3 years, the cumulative incidence of death and LTFU were 12.5% (11.5%-13.5%) and 25.4% (24.0%-26.9%), respectively, with important differences between countries as follows: in Zimbabwe 75.1% (72.8%-77.3%) were alive and on ART at 3 years compared with 55.4% (52.8%-58.0%) in Lesotho and 51.6% (48.0%-55.2%) in Mozambique. In all settings, young age and male gender predicted LTFU, whereas advanced clinical stage and low baseline CD4 counts predicted death. In African ART programs with limited access to second-line treatment, mortality, and LTFU are high in the first 3 years of ART. Low retention in care is a major threat to the sustainability of ART delivery in Southern Africa, particularly in rural sites.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2011; 59(2):e9-16. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31823edb6a · 4.39 Impact Factor