Fat caves: caveolae, lipid trafficking and lipid metabolism in adipocytes

Department of Biochemistry Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord St., Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 8.87). 05/2011; 22(8):318-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2011.04.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Caveolae are subdomains of the eukaryotic cell surface, so named because they resemble little caves, being small omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane into the cytosol. They are present in many cell types, and are especially abundant in adipocytes, in which they have been implicated as playing a role in lipid metabolism. Thus, mice and humans lacking caveolae have small adipocytes and exhibit lipodystrophies along with other physiological abnormalities. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the role of caveolae in adipocyte lipid metabolism in the context of the protein and lipid composition of these structures.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cavins are a family of proteins associated with caveolae, cavin-1, -2 and -3 being widely expressed while cavin-4 is restricted to striated muscle. Deletion of cavin-1 results in phenotypes including metabolic changes consistent with adipocyte dysfunction, and caveolae are completely absent. Deletion of cavin-2 causes tissue-specific loss of caveolae. The consequences of cavin-3 deletion are less clear, as there are divergent data on the abundance of caveolae in cavin-3 null mice. Here we examine the consequences of cavin-3 deficiency in vivo by making cavin-3 knockout mice. We find that loss of cavin-3 has minimal or no effects on the levels of other caveolar proteins, does not appear to play a major role in formation of protein complexes important for caveolar morphogenesis, and has no significant effect on caveolae abundance. Cavin-3 null mice have the same body weight and fat mass as wild type animals at ages 8 through 30 weeks on both normal chow and high fat diets. Likewise, the two mouse strains exhibit identical glucose tolerance tests on both diets. Microarray analysis from adipose tissue shows that the changes in mRNA expression between cavin-3 null and wild type mouse are minimal. We conclude that cavin-3 is not absolutely required for making caveolae, and suggest that the mechanistic link between cavin-3 and metabolic regulation remains uncertain.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102935. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102935 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue plays a critical role in human metabolic health. This is most dramatically illustrated by the severe metabolic disease that occurs in syndromes of lipodystrophy where individuals fail to develop or maintain appropriate adipose tissue mass. The most severe form of this disorder is congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL). Individuals with CGL have a striking paucity of adipose tissue and typically display severe metabolic disease with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Understanding of the metabolic consequences of lipodystrophies and their underlying molecular mechanisms will provide new information regarding the development and function of human adipose tissue. Mouse models of these conditions offer key resources to investigate this in vivo. Adipocyte dysfunction is believed to underlie the development of metabolic disease in obesity. Hence, understanding how one might beneficially manipulate adipose tissue by studying genes whose disruption causes lipodystrophy is likely to suggest novel means to improve metabolic health in common obesity.
    Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2014; 109:53-96. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-397920-9.00005-6 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Working out of the role of lipids incorporated into membranes and the formation of a new view on the morphology, organization, and functioning of membranes has in the recent past taken place thanks to active study of the basic membrane clusters, rafts. In this overview, current data on the morphology and biophysical and biochemical features of rafts are summarized and the structure, form, and basic marker proteins of functional microdomains are described.
    Cell and Tissue Biology 11/2013; 7(6). DOI:10.1134/S1990519X13060102

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 16, 2014