Vitamin D status: United States, 2001-2006.
ABSTRACT The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently released new dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. The IOM defined four categories of vitamin D status based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD): (i) risk of deficiency, (ii) risk of inadequacy, (iii) sufficiency, and (iv) above which there may be reason for concern. This brief presents the most recent national data on vitamin D status in the U.S. population based on these IOM categories. Results are presented by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and, for women, by pregnancy and lactation status.
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ABSTRACT: A number of observational studies have found an association between low vitamin D levels and risk of sepsis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the overall estimate of risk. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by online searches (CENTRAL, PubMed/MEDLINE, and EMBASE) was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42014014767). Primary outcome was incidence, prevalence, relative risk or odds ratio of having sepsis or bloodstream infection between patients with vitamin D deficiency and controls. The initial search yielded 647 articles. Twenty-one articles underwent full-length review and data were extracted from 10 observational studies. Pooled odds ratio of sepsis in participants with vitamin D deficiency was 1.78 (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.03, p < 0.01) compared with controls in studies that reported participant numbers and was 1.45 (95 % CI = 1.26 to 1.66, p < 0.01) in studies that reported an adjusted odds ratio of vitamin D deficiency for developing sepsis. Statistical between-study heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 0 % and 5 %, respectively). Standardized mean difference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with sepsis and controls was -0.24 (95 % CI = -0.49 to 0.00, p = 0.05) and lower in the sepsis group compared with non-sepsis or control participants. The statistical between-study heterogeneity (I(2)) was 0 %. Vitamin D deficiency were associated with an increased susceptibility of sepsis.BMC Anesthesiology 06/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12871-015-0063-3 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which constitutive skin color explains racial/ethnic differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in urban schoolchildren. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine associations of 25OHD with parent-reported race/ethnicity and constitutive skin color as measured by reflectance colorimeter [individual typology angle (ITA°; higher value corresponds to lighter skin)] in 307 Greater Boston schoolchildren aged 9-15 during October-December 2011. Nearly 60% of all children were inadequate in 25OHD (<20 ng/mL). Prevalence of inadequate 25OHD differed by race/ethnicity (p<0.001): white (46.6%), black (74.5%), Hispanic (64.7%), Asian (88.9%), and multi-racial/other (52.7%). Serum 25OHD increased 0.6 ng/mL per 10° increase in ITA° value (p<0.001). The prediction of 25OHD by race/ethnicity was slightly stronger than the prediction by skin color in separate models (R2=0.19, R2=0.16, respectively). Most of the variability in 25OHD in race/ethnicity was due to constitutive skin color in this group of racially diverse US children.Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 06/2014; 27(11-12). DOI:10.1515/jpem-2014-0068 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D, upon its discovery one century ago, was classified as a vitamin. This classification still greatly affects our perception about its biological role. 1,25(OH)2D (now known as the D hormone) is a pleiotropic steroid hormone that has multiple biologic effects. It is integral to the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover as well as having anti-proliferative, pro-differentiation, anti-bacterial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties within the body in various cells and tissues. Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) should be considered a nutritional substrate that must be ingested or synthesized in sufficient amounts for the further synthesis of the very important regulatory steroid hormone (D hormone), especially in patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD). Vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency was shown to be pandemic and associated with numerous chronic inflammatory and malignant diseases and even with increased risk of mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that a high percentage of children with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD-e.g., JIA, jSLE) have a vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency which might correlate with disease outcome and flares. Glucocorticoids used to treat disease may have a regulatory effect on vitamin D metabolism which can additionally aggravate bone turnover in PRD. An effort to define the optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations for healthy children and adults was launched in 2010 but as of now there are no guidelines about supplementation in PRD. In this review we have tried to summarize the strong evidence now suggesting that as the knowledge of the optimal approach to diagnosis and treatment PRD has evolved, there is also an emerging need for vitamin D supplementation as an adjunct to regular disease treatment. So in accordance with new vitamin D recommendations, we recommend that a child with rheumatic disease, especially if treated with steroids, needs at least 2-3 time higher doses of vitamin D than the dose recommended for age (approximately 2000 UI/day). Vitamin D supplementation has become an appealing and important adjunct treatment option in PRD.Pediatric Rheumatology 05/2015; 13(1):18. DOI:10.1186/s12969-015-0017-9 · 1.62 Impact Factor