Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001–2006

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.
NCHS data brief 03/2011; 59(59):1-8.
Source: PubMed


The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently released new dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. The IOM defined four categories of vitamin D status based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD): (i) risk of deficiency, (ii) risk of inadequacy, (iii) sufficiency, and (iv) above which there may be reason for concern. This brief presents the most recent national data on vitamin D status in the U.S. population based on these IOM categories. Results are presented by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and, for women, by pregnancy and lactation status.

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    • "The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], when bound to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), regulates the expression of genes in many molecular pathways, including inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, and tissue-remodeling pathways [1]. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the primary circulating biomarker of vitamin D status, and recent national survey data in the U.S. indicate 32% of Americans are at risk of vitamin D inadequacy or deficiency, defined as 30–49 nmol/L and <30 nmol/L serum 25(OH)D, respectively [2,3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is associated with lung health in epidemiologic studies, but mechanisms mediating observed associations are poorly understood. This study explores mechanisms for an effect of vitamin D in lung through an in vivo gene expression study, an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in lung tissue, and a population-based cohort study of sequence variants. Microarray analysis investigated the association of gene expression in small airway epithelial cells with serum 25(OH)D in adult non-smokers. Sequence variants in candidate genes identified by the microarray were investigated in a lung tissue eQTL database, and also in relation to cross-sectional pulmonary function in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study, stratified by race, with replication in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). 13 candidate genes had significant differences in expression by serum 25(OH)D (nominal p < 0.05), and a genome-wide significant eQTL association was detected for SGPP2. In Health ABC, SGPP2 SNPs were associated with FEV1 in both European- and African-Americans, and the gene-level association was replicated in European-American FHS participants. SNPs in 5 additional candidate genes (DAPK1, FSTL1, KAL1, KCNS3, and RSAD2) were associated with FEV1 in Health ABC participants. SGPP2, a sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase, is a novel vitamin D-responsive gene associated with lung function. The identified associations will need to be followed up in further studies.
    BMC Medical Genetics 11/2013; 14(1):122. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-14-122 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    • "There is actually little consensus on reference intervals used to determine what are optimal, sufficient, insufficient, deficient, and/or toxic levels of 25(OH)D [13]. For example, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recently defined four categories of 25(OH)D status: risk of deficiency (<30 nmol/L; <12 ng/mL), risk of inadequacy (30–49 nmol/L; 12–19 ng/mL), sufficiency (50–125 nmol/L; 20–50 ng/mL); and above recommended levels (>125 nmol/L; >50 ng/mL) [14]. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was originally analyzed to assess the vitamin D status of the United States population [15], and has more recently been reviewed with these categories in mind [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa -- in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of >= 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH)D status was observed later in life, a finding that may reflect the previously described increased use of vitamin D-containing supplements in such populations. Severe vitamin D deficiency is much more common than vitamin D toxicity.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 11/2013; 13(1):52. DOI:10.1186/1472-6823-13-52 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "However, more fortified foods with an affordable price may reverse the prevalence of inadequacy in vitamin D intake and possibly contribute to a better 25(OH)D status. The evaluation of serum concentration of 25(OH)D throughout the various seasons confirms the same insufficiency pattern observed in countries at different latitudes, such as the United States and in Europe [29] [30] [31]. Additionally, differences were observed during the seasons of the year. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In addition to the importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D status for health and prevention of several chronic diseases, a high prevalence of both nutrient inadequacy and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) insufficiency has been observed. The aim of this study was to estimate calcium and vitamin D status correlates and adequacy from a population-based epidemiologic study. Methods: This is a subsample of a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of individuals living in São Paulo that includes 636 participants. A 24-h dietary record and a blood sample were collected. Nutrient adequacy was estimated by adjusting for the within-person variance of the nutrient intake. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and considered adequate when ≥ 50 nmol/L. Results: Calcium and vitamin D intake decrease according to life stages in both men and women, and increases with family income and educational level. The prevalence of calcium intake inadequacy is higher than 70% and almost 100% for vitamin D. The highest 25(OH)D concentration was observed in the fall-51.7 (20.4) nmol/L-and lowest in the summer-30.1 (8.8) nmol/L. Sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol and smoking habits, life stage, family income, skin color, waist circumference, and season of the year could explain 22% of the variability of 25(OH)D. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates important inadequacies regarding the nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D and indicates an urgent need not only for health professionals, but also for government and food industries to undertake new initiatives that could result in a real improvement in terms of calcium and vitamin D nutrition.
    Nutrition 02/2013; 29(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.12.009 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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