Sex steroids control neuroinflammatory processes in the brain: relevance for acute ischaemia and degenerative demyelination.
ABSTRACT Sex steroids have been demonstrated as powerful compounds to protect neurones and neural tissue from neurotoxic challenges and during neurodegeneration. A multitude of cellular actions have been attributed to female gonadal steroid hormones, including the regulation of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factors, bioenergetic demands and radical elimination, growth factor allocation and counteracting against excitotoxicity. In recent years, immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory characteristics of oestrogen and progesterone have also come under scrutiny. To date, each of these physiological responses has been considered to be partially and selectively integrated in the mediation of steroid-mediated cell protection and tested in suitable animal models and in vitro systems. To what extent these individual effects contribute to the overall neural protection remains sketchy. One idea is that a battery of cellular mechanisms operates at the same time. On the other hand, interactions and the control of the brain-intrinsic and peripheral immune system may play an additional and perhaps pioneering function in this scenario, notwithstanding the importance of secondary adjuvant mechanisms. In the present review, we highlight neuroprotective effects of oestrogen and progesterone in two different disease models of the brain, namely acute ischaemic and demyelination damage, which represent the most common acute and degenerative neurological disorders in humans. Besides other inflammatory parameters, we discuss the idea that chemokine expression and signalling appear to be early hallmarks in both diseases and are positively affected by sex steroids. In addition, the complex interplay with local brain-resident immune-competent cells appears to be controlled by the steroid environment.
Article: Mild hypothermia attenuates mitochondrial oxidative stress by protecting respiratory enzymes and upregulating MnSOD in a pig model of cardiac arrest.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mild hypothermia is the only effective treatment confirmed clinically to improve neurological outcomes for comatose patients with cardiac arrest. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, our aim was to determine the effect of mild hypothermia on mitochondrial oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex. We intravascularly induced mild hypothermia (33°C), maintained this temperature for 12 h, and actively rewarmed in the inbred Chinese Wuzhishan minipigs successfully resuscitated after 8 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation. Cerebral samples were collected at 24 and 72 h following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We found that mitochondrial malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex in normothermic pigs even at 24 h after ROSC, whereas mild hypothermia attenuated this increase. Moreover, mild hypothermia attenuated the decrease in Complex I and Complex III (i.e., major sites of reactive oxygen species production) activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increased antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. This increase in MnSOD activity was consistent with the upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA and protein expressions, and with the increase of Nrf2 nuclear translocation in normothermic pigs at 24 and 72 h following ROSC, whereas mild hypothermia enhanced these tendencies. Thus, our findings indicate that mild hypothermia attenuates mitochondrial oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex, which may be associated with reduced impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, and enhancement of MnSOD activity and expression via Nrf2 activation.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35313. · 4.09 Impact Factor