Methotrexate toxicity and efficacy during the consolidation phase in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and MTHFR polymorphisms as pharmacogenetic determinants

Pediatric Department, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.57). 05/2011; 68(5):1339-46. DOI: 10.1007/s00280-011-1665-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Folate-metabolizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are emerging as important pharmacogenetic prognostic determinants of the response to chemotherapy. With high doses of methotrexate (MTX) in the consolidation phase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms could be potential modulators of the therapeutic response to antifolate chemotherapeutics in identifying a possible correlation with the outcome. This study aims to analyse the potential role of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C genetic variants in modulating the clinical toxicity and efficacy of high doses of MTX in a cohort of paediatric ALL patients (n = 151) treated with AIEOP protocols.
This work includes DNA extraction by slides and RFLP-PCR.
The first observation relative to early toxicities (haematological and non-haematological), after the first doses of MTX in all protocols, was an association between the 677T and 1298C carriers and global toxicity. We found that in the 2 g/m(2) MTX group, patients harbouring 677TT homozygously exhibited a substantial 12-fold risk of developing toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the MTHFR 677TT variant is associated with an increased risk of relapse when compared to other genotypes. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the 677TT variant had a lower 7-year DFS(disease-free survival) probability compared to the 677C carrier genotype (log-rank test P = 0.003) and OS (overall survival) and also confirms the lower probability of survival for patients with the 677TT variant (log-rank test, P = 0.006).
Our study provides further evidence of the critical role played by folate pathway enzymes in the outcome of ALL, possibly through the interference of MTX.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Pharmacogenetics of methotrexate (MTX) contributes to interindividual differences in toxicity. We aimed to evaluate the impact of SNPs within the MTX pathway genes on MTX-induced toxicity and MTX plasma levels at 48 h following treatment in Asian adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients & methods: Patients (n = 71) were genotyped for MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, SLC19A1 G80A, ABCG2 C421A and ABCB1 C3435T using the Sequenom MassARRAY (R) platform. Plasma MTX concentrations at 48 h were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Results: Forty-eight patients had hematopoietic toxicity, 51 had hepatic toxicity and 36 had mucositis. Patients homozygous for MTHFR 677TT were associated with increased risk of both hematopoietic (odds ratio [OR]: 9.03; 95% CI: 2.28-36.16; p = 0.002) and hepatic (OR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.01-15.11; p = 0.036) toxicities. Hepatic toxicity was associated with SLC19A1 G80A (OR: 5.27, 95% CI: 1.21-22.72; p = 0.032) and ABCB1 C3435T (OR: 8.62; 95% CI: 1.96-37.57; p = 0.004). However, polymorphisms in MTHFR A1298C and ABCG2 C421A were not associated with any of the toxicities, and mucositis was not associated with any polymorphisms of the MTX pathway genes. Patients with MTHFR C677T and ABCB1 C3435T polymorphisms appear to have significantly higher MTX plasma concentrations (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results in Asian adults provides evidence for the contribution pharmacogenetics to the toxicity of high-dose MTX and plasma MTX concentrations at 48 h following treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These results will contribute towards the effort of MTX therapy individualization.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. Although treatment outcome has improved owing to advances in chemotherapy, there is still a group of patients for which therapy fails while some patients experience severe toxicity. In the last few years, several pharmacogenetic studies have been performed to search for markers of outcome and toxicity in pediatric ALL. However, to date, TPMT is the only pharmacogenetic marker in ALL with clinical guidelines for drug dosing. In this article, we will provide an overview of the most important findings carried out in pharmacogenetics for pediatric ALL, such as the interest drawn by methotrexate transporters in the context of methotrexate treatment. Even if most of the studies are centered on coding genes, we will also point to new approaches focusing on noncoding regions and epigenetic variation that could be interesting for consideration in the near future.
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