Livelihood security and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in low and middle income settings: a systematic review.

Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2011; 6(5):e18948.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to examine the association between livelihood security and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) in low- and middle-income countries (LIMC).
Performing a systematic review, we searched, independently and in duplicate, 7 electronic databases and 2 conference websites for quantitative surveys that examined the association between indicators of livelihood security and adherence to ARVs in LIMC between 2000-2010. Criteria for relevance were applied to complete papers (quantitative study with estimates of associations) and quality assessment was conducted on those deemed relevant. We performed three regressions to measure the association between each type of livelihood and adherence.
Twenty original studies and 6 conference abstracts were included, the majority from Africa (n = 16). Seventeen studies and 3 conference abstracts were cross-sectional and 3 studies and 3 abstracts were prospective clinical cohort studies, with considerable variation in quality for studies of each design type. Among the diverse populations represented, we observed considerable variation in associations between measurements of livelihood indicators and increasingly accepted adherence measures, irrespective of study design or quality. A financial capital indicator, financial constraints/payment for ARV medication, was more commonly associated with non-adherence (3/5 studies). A human capital indicator, educational level, was most commonly associated with adherence (11/20 studies).
Additional better quality research examining livelihood security is required to inform provision of optimal supports for adherence and mitigation of the impacts of HIV/AIDS.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p < 0.05) were used in multivariate models and all models were stratified by gender. Of 158 cases and 300 controls, 35 % were male and median age was 40 years. Gender stratification of models revealed automobile ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2014; 18(11). · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying follow-up (FU) visit patterns, and exploring which factors influence them are likely to be useful in determining which patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may become Lost to Follow-Up (LTFU). Using an operation and implementation research approach, we sought 1) to describe the timing of FU visits amongst patients who have been on ART for shorter and longer periods of time; and 2) to determine the median time to late visits, and 3) to identify specific factors that may be associated with these patterns in Zomba, Malawi.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101875. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Assessing the level of adherence and its determinants is important in appraising the overall effectiveness of trials. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of adherence and its determinants in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of Fe prophylaxis during pregnancy in Maputo, Mozambique. Design A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Setting Two health centres (1o de Maio and Machava) in Maputo, Mozambique. Subjects Pregnant women (≥12 weeks’ gestation, ≥18 years old, non-high-risk pregnancy; n 4326) attending prenatal care consultations at two health centres were randomized to receive routine Fe (n 2184; 60 mg ferrous sulfate plus 400 μg folic acid daily throughout pregnancy) or selective Fe (n 2142; screening and treatment for anaemia and daily intake of 1 mg folic acid). Results The level of adherence was 79 % for having two or more visits, 53 % for adequate prenatal care and 67 % for complete intake of Fe/folic acid tablets during the trial. The correlation between the adherence measures ranged between 0·151 and 0·739. Adherence did not differ by trial arm, but there were centre differences in adequate prenatal visits and intake of tablets. Older women (>20 years) and those with a history of abortion were more likely to achieve greater adherence, whereas an increased number of previous births decreased the likelihood of adherence. HIV positivity decreased the likelihood of adherence in one trial centre and increased it in the other. Conclusions The variation in adherence by trial centre, women’s characteristics and outcome measures suggests that adherence in trials fully depends on participants’ behaviour and can be increased by paying attention to contextual factors.
    Public Health Nutrition 07/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014