Obesity represents a strong risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Strategies for disease prevention often promote lifestyle changes encouraging participation in physical activity. However, determining what amount of physical activity is necessary for achieving specific health benefits has been hampered by the lack of accurate instruments for monitoring physical activity and the related physiological outcomes. This review aims at presenting recent advances in activity-monitoring technology and their application to support interventions for health promotion. Activity monitors have evolved from step counters and measuring devices of physical activity duration and intensity to more advanced systems providing quantitative and qualitative information on the individuals' activity behavior. Correspondingly, methods to predict activity-related energy expenditure using bodily acceleration and subjects characteristics have advanced from linear regression to innovative algorithms capable of determining physical activity types and the related metabolic costs. These novel techniques can monitor modes of sedentary behavior as well as the engagement in specific activity types that helps to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, advances in activity monitoring have the potential to support the design of response-dependent physical activity recommendations that are needed to generate effective and personalized lifestyle interventions for health promotion.
"Accelerometers can be used to study patterns of activity in time. A new generation of accelerometers will provide information on body posture and activity recognition to allow objective assessment of subjects’ habitual activities, options for a healthy change, and effects of the follow-up of any changes (Bonomi and Westerterp, 2012). Simultaneous measurement of body acceleration and heart rate can give information on physical fitness (Plasqui and Westerterp, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.
Frontiers in Physiology 04/2013; 4:90. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00090 · 3.53 Impact Factor
"The strength of this study was that free-living physical activity was measured before and after weight loss using an objective and validated method, which allowed both an assessment of the total amount of body movement and a definition of the individuals’ activity behavior. The activity classification system employed to identify activity types has been successfully validated in free-living individuals . However, the lack of a reference technique to determine duration of certain activity types like free-living cycling hampers the quantification of the methodological accuracy of the classification tree. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the component of daily energy expenditure that is mainly influenced by the amount of physical activity (PA) and by the weight of the body displaced. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of weight loss on PA and AEE. The body weight and PA of 66 overweight and obese subjects were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of 67% energy restriction. PA was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor) and quantified in activity counts. Tracmor recordings were also processed using a classification algorithm to recognize 6 common activity types engaged in during the day. A doubly-labeled water validated equation based on Tracmor output was used to estimate AEE. After weight loss, body weight decreased by 13±4%, daily activity counts augmented by 9% (95% CI: +2%, +15%), and this increase was weakly associated with the decrease in body weight (R(2) = 7%; P<0.05). After weight loss subjects were significantly (P<0.05) less sedentary (-26 min/d), and increased the time spent walking (+11 min/d) and bicycling (+4 min/d). However, AEE decreased by 0.6±0.4 MJ/d after weight loss. On average, a 2-hour/day reduction of sedentary time by increasing ambulatory and generic activities was required to restore baseline levels of AEE. In conclusion, after weight loss PA increased but the related metabolic demand did not offset the reduction in AEE due to the lower body weight. Promoting physical activity according to the extent of weight loss might increase successfulness of weight maintenance.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59641. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059641 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rantalainen, T, Ruotsalainen, I, and Virmavirta, M. Effect of weighted vest suit worn during daily activities on running speed, jumping power, and agility in young men. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 3030-3035, 2012-Previous weighted vest interventions using exercise in addition to hypergravity have been successful in improving postural balance and power production capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hypergravity alone in daily activities excluding sporting activities is effective in improving neuromuscular performance in young adults. Eight male subjects (age = 32 [SD: 6] years, height = 178  cm, and body mass = 81  kg) wore weighted vests 3 d·wk for 3 weeks during waking hours, excluding sporting activities. Control group comprised 9 male subjects (age = 32  years, height = 179  cm, and body mass = 83  kg). Performance was assessed with countermovement jump (body mass normalized peak power), figure-of-8 running test (running time), and running velocity test at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, the groups did not differ from each other (multivariate analysis of variance [MANOVA] p = 0.828). A significant group × time interaction (MANOVA F = 5.1, p = 0.015) was observed for performance variables. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention improved the figure-of-8 running time (p = 0.016) (-2.2 vs. 0.5%), whereas normalized peak power (0.0 vs. 1.6%) and running velocity (1.3 vs. 0.1%) were unaffected (p ≥ 0.095). Wearing weighted vests was effective in slightly improving agility-related performance in young men. Because the effect was small, applying hypergravity only during exercise probably suffices. It appears that a proper volume and intensity of hypergravity could be in the order of 5-10% body weight vest worn during up to 50% of the training sessions for a period of 3-4 weeks.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 01/2012; 26(11):3030-5. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318245c4c6 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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