Induced Migration of Dental Pulp Stem Cells for in vivo Pulp Regeneration
ABSTRACT Dental pulp has intrinsic capacity for self-repair. However, it is not clear whether dental pulp cells can be recruited endogenously for regenerating pulp tissues, including mineralizing into dentin. This work is based on a hypothesis that dental pulp stem/progenitor cells can be induced to migrate by chemotactic cytokines and act as endogenous cell sources for regeneration and mineralization. Dental stem cells (DSCs) were isolated from adult human tooth pulp and seeded on the surfaces of 3D collagen gel cylinders that were incubated in chemically defined media with stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7). Significantly more cells were recruited into collagen gel by SDF1 or bFGF than without cytokines in 7 days, whereas BMP7 had little effect on cell recruitment. BMP7, however, was highly effective, equally to dexamethasone, in orchestrating mineralization of cultured DSCs. Cell membrane receptors for SDF1, bFGF, and BMP7 were up-regulated in treated DSCs. Upon in vivo delivery, bFGF induced re-cellularization and re-vascularization in endodontically treated human teeth implanted into the dorsum of rats. Thus, endogenous dental pulp cells, including stem/progenitor cells, may be recruited and subsequently differentiated by chemotaxis of selective cytokines in the regeneration of dental pulp.
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ABSTRACT: Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal resorption in the root canal, pulp/dentin regeneration, and root resorption in orthodontic tooth movement. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.Journal of Dental Research 03/2015; 94(6). DOI:10.1177/0022034515575347 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Within the field of dental tissue engineering, the establishment of adequate tissue vascularization is one of the most important burdens to overcome. As vascular access within the tooth is restricted by the apical foramen, it is of major importance to implement effective vascularization strategies in order to recreate viable components of teeth and periodontal tissues. However, while the current regenerative approaches focus on the use of dental stem cells (DSCs), little is known about these cells and their ability to promote angiogenesis. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the paracrine angiogenic properties of postnatal DSCs, in particular dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental follicle precursor cells (FSCs). An antibody array, together with RT-PCR and ELISA, pointed out the differential expression of pro-angiogenic as well as anti-angiogenic factors by cultured DSCs and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1). Despite the secretion of proliferation-promoting factors, DSCs caused no notable increase in the proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). With regard to other aspects of the angiogenic cascade, DPSCs, SCAPs and HGF-1 significantly promoted endothelial migration in a transwell migration assay. DPSCs also had a pronounced effect on endothelial tubulogenesis, as was shown by an in vitro Matrigel™ assay. In the last part of this study, a chorioallantoic membrane assay demonstrated a sustained pro-angiogenic impact of DPSCs and SCAPs in an in vivo setting. Collectively, these data indicate a predominant pro-angiogenic influence of DPSCs and SCAPS in vitro and in vivo in comparison to FSCs, suggesting that both stem cell populations could potentially promote the vascularization of regenerated dental tissues.Stem Cell Research 04/2014; 12(3):778-790. DOI:10.1016/j.scr.2014.03.008 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current stem cell research greatly depends on suitable in vitro-cultivation approaches, enabling expansion, differentiation, cryopreservation or genetic modification of stem cells outside the organism. Particularly regarding neurodegenerative diseases, regeneration of complex injuries or cancer, this already great field of applications is even broadened by in vitro-culture approaches for stem cell-based therapy. Here, 2D-concepts of cultivation focus on cell differentiation or short-time expansion for further transplantation as well as the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of a certain disease for drug targeting. However, latest studies suggest potential beneficial effects of 3D cultivation strategies. In contrast to 2D-culture, the conditions of the endogenous stem cell niche are mirrored more closely, leading to improved cellular viability and differentiation behavior. The use of 3D-cultivated stem cell-products may provide the advantages of direct transplantation, enhanced graft adherence and higher cellular loading densities within the transplant. Thus, together with the increased differentiation potential of stem cells under such conditions, 3D-culture may provide a powerful tool for regenerative medicine. Here, we summarize current 3D-cultivation approaches for adult, embryonic and cancer stem cells, highlighting their potential scientific and clinical impacts.03/2013; 2(1):8-19. DOI:10.2174/2211542011302010003