Tetraploidization events by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent in apomictic citrus and are dependent on genotype and environment.
ABSTRACT Polyploidy is a major component of plant evolution. The citrus gene pool is essentially diploid but tetraploid plants are frequently encountered in seedlings of diploid apomictic genotypes. The main objectives of the present study were to establish the origin of these tetraploid plants and to ascertain the importance of genotypic and environmental factors on tetraploid formation.
Tetraploid seedlings from 30 diploid apomictic genotypes were selected by flow cytometry and genotyped with 24 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse their genetic origin. Embryo rescue was used to grow all embryos contained in polyembryonic seeds of 'Tardivo di Ciaculli' mandarin, followed by characterization of the plantlets obtained by flow cytometry and SSR markers to accurately establish the rate of tetraploidization events and their potential tissue location. Inter-annual variations in tetraploid seedling rates were analysed for seven genotypes. Variation in tetraploid plantlet rates was analysed between different seedlings of the same genotype ('Carrizo' citrange; Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) from seeds collected in different tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean countries.
Tetraploid plants were obtained for all the studied diploid genotypes, except for four mandarins. All tetraploid plants were identical to their diploid maternal line for SSR markers and were not cytochimeric. Significant genotypic and environmental effects were observed, as well as negative correlation between mean temperature during the flowering period and tetraploidy seedling rates. The higher frequencies (20 %) of tetraploids were observed for citranges cultivated in the Mediterranean area.
Tetraploidization by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent events in apomictic citrus, and are affected by both genotypic and environmental factors. Colder conditions in marginal climatic areas appear to favour the expression of tetraploidization. Tetraploid genotypes arising from chromosome doubling of apomictic citrus are extensively being used as parents in breeding programmes to develop seedless triploid cultivars and have potential direct use as new rootstocks.
Article: Evolutionary rate variation, genomic dominance and duplicate gene expression evolution during allotetraploid cotton speciation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Here, we describe the evolution of gene expression among a diversified cohort of five allopolyploid species in the cotton genus (Gossypium). Using this phylogenetic framework and comparisons with expression changes accompanying F(1) hybridization, we provide a temporal perspective on expression diversification following a shared genome duplication. Global patterns of gene expression were studied by the hybridization of petal RNAs to a custom microarray. This platform measures total expression for c. 42 000 duplicated genes, and genome-specific expression for c. 1400 homoeologs (genes duplicated by polyploidy). We report homoeolog expression bias favoring the allopolyploid D genome over the A genome in all species (among five polyploid species, D biases ranging from c. 54 to 60%), in addition to conservation of biases among genes. Furthermore, we find surprising levels of transgressive up- and down-regulation in the allopolyploids, a diminution of the level of bias in genomic expression dominance but not in its magnitude, and high levels of rate variation among allotetraploid species. We illustrate how phylogenetic and temporal components of expression evolution may be partitioned and revealed following allopolyploidy. Overall patterns of expression evolution are similar among the Gossypium allotetraploids, notwithstanding a high level of interspecific rate variation, but differ strikingly from the direction of genomic expression dominance patterns in the synthetic F(1) hybrid.New Phytologist 11/2009; 186(1):184-93. · 6.64 Impact Factor