Chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with tumor response to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

Department of Surgery, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.84). 09/2011; 50(9):689-99. DOI: 10.1002/gcc.20891
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rectal cancer response to chemoradiation (CRT) varies from no response to a pathologic complete response (pCR). Identifying predictive biomarkers of response would therefore be useful. We assessed whether chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) can assist in predicting pCR. Pretreatment tumor biopsies and paired normal surgical tissues from the proximal resection margin were collected from 95 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative CRT and total mesorectal excision in a prospective Phase II study. Tumor and control DNA were extracted, and oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to identify CNAs, which were correlated with pCR. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was then used to identify functionally relevant genes in aberrant regions. Finally, a predictive model for pCR was built using support vector machine (SVM), and leave-one-out cross validation assessed the accuracy of aCGH. Chromosomal regions most commonly affected by gains were 20q11.21-q13.33, 13q11.32-23, 7p22.3-p22.2, and 8q23.3-q24.3, and losses were present at 18q11.32-q23, 17p13.3-q11.1, 10q23.1, and 4q32.1-q32.3. The 25 (26%) patients who achieved a pCR had significantly fewer high copy gains overall than non-pCR patients (P = 0.01). Loss of chromosomal region 15q11.1-q26.3 was significantly associated with non-pCR (P < 0.00002; Q-bound < 0.0391), while loss of 12p13.31 was significantly associated with pCR (P < 0.0003; Q-bound < 0.097). IPA identified eight genes in the imbalanced chromosomal regions that associated with tumor response. SVM identified 58 probes that predict pCR with 76% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 92%. Our data indicate that chromosomal CNAs can help identify rectal cancer patients more likely to develop a pCR to CRT.

Download full-text


Available from: Alessandro Fichera, Jun 21, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In rectal cancer, total mesorectal excision surgery combined with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy reduces local recurrence rates but does not improve overall patient survival, a result that may be due to the harmful side effects and/or co-morbidity of preoperative treatment. New biomarkers are needed to facilitate identification of rectal cancer patients at high risk for local recurrent disease. This would allow for preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy to be restricted to high-risk patients, thereby reducing overtreatment and allowing personalized treatment protocols. We analyzed genome-wide DNA copy number (CN) and allelic alterations in 112 tumors from preoperatively untreated rectal cancer patients. Sixty-six patients with local and/or distant recurrent disease were compared to matched controls without recurrence. Results were validated in a second cohort of tumors from 95 matched rectal cancer patients. Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis that included 42 studies reporting on CN alterations in colorectal cancer and compared results to our own data. Results The genomic profiles in our study were comparable to other rectal cancer studies. Results of the meta-analysis supported the hypothesis that colon cancer and rectal cancer may be distinct disease entities. In our discovery patient study cohort, allelic retention of chromosome 7 was significantly associated with local recurrent disease. Data from the validation cohort were supportive, albeit not statistically significant, of this finding. Conclusions We showed that retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7 may be associated with local recurrence in rectal cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms and effect of retention of chromosome 7 on the development of local recurrent disease in rectal cancer. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1550-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Genomics 06/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1550-0 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Preoperative chemoradiotherapy represents the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Unfortunately, the response of individual tumors to multimodal treatment is not uniform and ranges from complete response to complete resistance. This poses a particular problem for patients with a priori resistant tumors because they may be exposed to irradiation and chemotherapy, treatment regimens that are both expensive and at times toxic, without benefit. Accordingly, there is a strong need to establish molecular biomarkers that predict the response of an individual patient’s tumor to multimodal treatment and that indicate treatment-associated toxicities prior to therapy. Such biomarkers may guide clinicians in choosing the best possible treatment for each individual patient. In addition, these biomarkers could be used to identify novel molecular targets and thereby assist in implementing novel strategies to sensitize a priori resistant tumors to multimodal treatment regimens. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings about the molecular basis of treatment resistance and treatment toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. Whole-genome, as well as single-biomarker or multibiomarker, analyses and their potential implications will be highlighted. At the end, we will outline a future vision of rectal cancer treatment in the era of personalized medicine.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2012; 397(4):543-55. DOI:10.1007/s00423-012-0929-5 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the excellent survival rate of Wilms tumor (WT) patients, only approximately one-half of children who suffer tumor recurrence reach second durable remission. This underlines the need for novel markers to optimize initial treatment. We investigated 77 tumors using Illumina 370CNV-QUAD genotyping BeadChip arrays and compared their genomic profiles to detect copy number (CN) abnormalities and allelic ratio anomalies associated with the following clinicopathological variables: relapse (yes vs. no), age at diagnosis (≤ 24 months vs. >24 months), and disease stage (low stage, I and II, vs. high stage, III and IV). We found that CN gains at chromosome region 1q21.1-q31.3 were significantly associated with relapse. Additional genetic events, including allelic imbalances at chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 3p, 3q, and 14q were also found to occur at higher frequency in relapsing tumors. Interestingly, allelic imbalances at 1p and 14q also showed a borderline association with higher tumor stages. No genetic events were found to be associated with age at diagnosis. This is the first genome wide analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays specifically investigating the role of genetic anomalies in predicting WT relapse on cases prospectively enrolled in the same clinical trial. Our study, besides confirming the role of 1q gains, identified a number of additional candidate genetic markers, warranting further molecular investigations.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 07/2012; 51(7):644-53. DOI:10.1002/gcc.21951 · 3.84 Impact Factor