Regulation of type 17 helper T-cell function by nitric oxide during inflammation.

Institute of Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 05/2011; 108(22):9220-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1100667108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are implicated in the pathogenesis many of human autoimmune diseases. Development of Th17 can be enhanced by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) whose ligands include the environmental pollutant dioxin, potentially linking environmental factors to the increased prevalence of autoimmune disease. We report here that nitric oxide (NO) can suppress the proliferation and function of polarized murine and human Th17 cells. NO also inhibits AHR expression in Th17 cells and the downstream events of AHR activation, including IL-22, IL-23 receptor, and Cyp1a1. Conversely, NO did not affect the polarization of Th17 cells from mice deficient in AHR. Furthermore, mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2(-/-)) developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than WT mice, with elevated AHR expression, increased IL-17A, and IL-22 synthesis. NO may therefore represent an important endogenous regulator to prevent overexpansion of Th17 cells and control of autoimmune diseases caused by environmental pollutants.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial drug, has been shown to modulate the immune system and reduce the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanisms of disease suppression are dependent on regulatory T cell induction, although Tregs-independent mechanisms exist. We aimed to evaluate whether CQ is capable to modulate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) both phenotypically and functionally as well as whether transfer of CQ-modulated DCs reduces EAE course. Our results show that CQ-treated DCs presented altered ultrastructure morphology and lower expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation. Consequently, T cell proliferation was diminished in coculture experiments. When transferred into EAE mice, DC-CQ was able to reduce the clinical manifestation of the disease through the modulation of the immune response against neuroantigens. The data presented herein indicate that chloroquine-mediated modulation of the immune system is achieved by a direct effect on DCs and that DC-CQ adoptive transfer may be a promising approach for avoiding drug toxicity.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 12 November 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.73.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 11/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We demonstrated previously that low-level diode laser irradiation with an indocyanine green-loaded nanosphere coated with chitosan (ICG-Nano/c) had an antimicrobial effect, and thus could be used for periodontal antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Since little is known about the effects of aPDT on periodontal tissue, we here investigated the effect of low-level laser irradiation, with and without ICG-Nano/c, on cultured epithelial cells. Human oral epithelial cells were irradiated in a repeated pulse mode (duty cycle, 10 %; pulse width, 100 ms; peak power output, 5 W). The expression of the developmental endothelial locus 1 (Del-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in Ca9-22 cells stimulated by laser irradiation and Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A wound healing assay was carried out on SCC-25 cells irradiated by diode laser with or without ICG-Nano/c. The mRNA expression of Del-1, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity, was significantly upregulated by laser irradiation (p < 0.01). Concurrently, LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression was significantly suppressed in the LPS + laser group (p < 0.01). ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the LPS + laser group than in the LPS only or control groups. Finally, compared with the control, the migration of epithelial cells was significantly increased by diode laser irradiation with or without ICG-Nano/c. These results suggest that, in addition to its antimicrobial effect, low-level diode laser irradiation, with or without ICG-Nano/c, can suppress excessive inflammatory responses via a mechanism involving Del-1, and assists in wound healing.
    Lasers in Medical Science 10/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immune system is regulated by distinct signaling pathways that control the development and function of the immune cells. Accumulating evidence suggest that ligation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), an environmentally responsive transcription factor, results in multiple cross talks that are capable of modulating these pathways and their downstream responsive genes. Most of the immune cells respond to such modulation, and many inflammatory response-related genes contain multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs) boxes upstream. Active research efforts have investigated the physiological role of Ahr in inflammation and autoimmunity using different animal models. Recently formed paradigm has shown that activation of Ahr by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) prompts the differentiation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inhibits T helper (Th)-17 suggesting that Ahr is an innovative therapeutic strategy for autoimmune inflammation. These promising findings generate a basis for future clinical practices in humans. This review addresses the current knowledge on the role of Ahr in different immune cell compartments, with a particular focus on inflammation and autoimmunity.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:520763.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014