Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: A comparison with children with specific language impairment
Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group.
To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups.
Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI.
For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for.
The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children.
Available from: Dragana Stanojevic
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ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent and constitutes an important public health problem around the world. In spite of a large number of pharmacological agents that successfully decrease mortality in CHF, the effects on exercise tolerance and quality of life are modest. Renal dysfunction is extremely common in patients with CHF and it is strongly related not only to increased mortality and morbidity but to a significant decrease in exercise tolerance, as well. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence and influence of the renal dysfunction on functional capacity in the elderly CHF patients.
We included 127 patients aged over 65 years in a stable phase of CHF. The diagnosis of heart failure was based on the latest diagnostic principles of the European Society of Cardiology. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) was determined by the abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD2) formula, and patients were categorized using the kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (K/DOQI) classification system. Functional capacity was determined by the 6 minute walking test (6MWT).
Among 127 patients, 90 were men. The average age was 72.5 +/- 4.99 years and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 40.22 +/- 9.89%. The average duration of CHF was 3.79 +/- 4.84 years. Ninty three (73.2%) patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II and 34 (26.8%) in NYHA class III. Normal renal function (eGFR > or = 90 mL/min) had 8.9% of participants, 57.8% had eGFR between 60-89 mL/min (stage 2 or mild reduction in GFR according to K/DOQI classification), 32.2% had eGFR between 30-59 mL/min (stage 3 or moderate reduction in GFR) and 1.1% had eGFR between 15-29 mL/min (stage 4 or severe reduction in GFR). We found statistically significant correlation between eGFR and 6 minute walking distance (6MWD) (r = 0.390, p < 0.001), LVEF (r = 0.268, p < 0.05), NYHA class (p = -0.269, p < 0.05) and age (r = 0.214, p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis only patients' age was a predictor of decreased 6MWD < 300 m (OR = 0.8736, CI = 0.7804 - 0.9781, p < 0.05).
Renal dysfunction is highly prevalent in the elderly CHF patients. It is associated with decreased functional capacity and therefore with poor prognosis. This study corroborates the use of eGFR not only as a powerful predictor of mortality in CHF, but also as an indicator of the functional capacity of cardiopulmonary system. However, clinicians underestimate a serial measurement of eGFR while it should be the part of a routine evaluation performed in every patient with CHF, particularly in the elderly population.
Vojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review 10/2012; 69(10):840-5. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Speech motor mechanisms play a crucial role in the process of demutization, due to the fact that they cover all the elements of the successive development of spech production movements leading to speech formation (so-called kinesthesia in speach). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of perceptual motor actions on the cognitive process of reading in 130 students in regular schools and schools for the deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the Republic of Serbia.
Kostić and Vladisavljević test consisted of the ten levels weight was used for the assessment of reading speed. To assess understanding of text read by verbal responses, we used three-dimensional adapted reading test of Helene Sax.
The triage-articulation test for assessing reading speed (Kostié and Vladisavljević's test according to the weight of ten levels, revealed that students in regular schools statistically significantly faster read texts as compared to the deaf students. The results of the three-dimensional adapted reading test of Helena Sax, show that the words learned by deaf children exist in isolation in their mind, i.e., if there is no standard of acoustic performance for graphic image, in deaf child every word, printed or written, is just the sum of letters without meaning.
There is a significant difference in text reading speed and its understanding among the children who hear and the deaf and hard-of-hearing children. It is essential that in deaf and heard-of-hearing children education, apart from the development of speech, parallelly use the concept of semantic processing in order to get each word by the fullness of its content and the possibility of expanding its meaning in a variety of assets.
Vojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review 10/2012; 69(10):846-51. DOI:10.2298/VSP1210846K · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers.
To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with typically developing peers. It also aimed to assess the relative contributions of reading and spelling skills to written language skills.
Forty-five children took part in the study: 15 were CwSLI, 15 were a chronological age match and 15 were a spelling age match. The children took part in a range of tasks that assessed writing, reading and spelling abilities.
In their written language and compared with typical age-matched peers, CwSLI used a significantly less diverse range of words, had lower quality written compositions overall, and lower levels of organization, unity and coherence. They also had a higher proportion of spelling errors. Overall, writing skills were strongly associated with reading skills.
The findings demonstrate the challenges CwSLI have in producing good-quality written text and that these challenges are likely to be related to the linguistic skills profile shown by these children.
International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 03/2013; 48(2):160-71. DOI:10.1111/1460-6984.12010 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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