The national burden of E-code-identified adverse drug events among hospitalized children using a national discharge database
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to provide a national-level assessment of pediatric adverse drug events (ADEs), including types, frequencies, and burdens.
Discharge data were obtained from the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. ADEs were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and supplemental E codes as adverse effects (AEs), accidental poisonings (APs), or those involving neuropathy, dermatitis, and contact dermatitis. For ADEs occurring in the hospital, visits were matched, by all patient refined diagnostic-related group, age, and gender, to one control visit without an ADE code. Burden was measured as excess length of stay and excess cost relative to the control. Using regression analysis, we obtained estimates on the effects of over 100 predictors on excess length of stay and excess cost of cases relative to the control.
Out of 7,558,812 hospital discharges in 2006, there were 84,510 ADEs identified during 69,620 visits (0.9% of the total number of discharges); 55,285 (79.4%) visits involved an AE; and 13,630 (19.6%) involved an AP; 12,151 (17.5%) were characterized by an ADE (usually an AP) at admission. The national pediatric ADE burden was estimated at 104,230 days with direct costs of $252.9 million. The most common AEs occurred with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs (20.4%) and adrenal corticosteroids (12.5%). The most common APs involved aromatic analgesics (13.7%), cardiovascular drugs (9.5%), antidepressants (8.6%), and benzodiazepine tranquilizers (8.0%).
By identifying specific ADEs that occur most often and/or have the highest burden, physicians and hospital administrators can better target their strategies for reducing pediatric medication-related harm.
- Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 11/2011; 51(6):784. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2011.11549
Article: Response to Letter to Editor.Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 11/2012; DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31827e20c7 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) increase morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs in children treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Few studies have reported the incidence and risk factors of ADRs in PICU. Our study aimed to evaluate incidence, risk factors, and economic burden of ADRs in PICU. An intensive ADR surveillance was conducted at the PICU of Children's Hospital of Michigan between November 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. A trigger list was used to screen for suspected ADR cases. Of the 697 consecutive PICU admissions reviewed, 13.1% experienced at least one episode of ADR. The ADR incidence was 22% in patients with cardiovascular (CV) surgery and 11.5% in other patients. The most frequently detected ADR was electrolyte imbalance associated with diuretic exposure. Mean age at admission was 4 years (interquartile range: 9 months-13 years). Risk factors for ADR included young age (<1 year), Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score upon admission ≥3, and administration of ≥16 medications. ADRs increased total ICU costs by 3.5-fold and length of ICU stay by 3.8-fold. Increased ADR surveillance of high risk patients in conjunction with early intervention may reduce drug related morbidity and costs in the PICU.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2013; 53(5). DOI:10.1002/jcph.75 · 2.47 Impact Factor