The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activated by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting cationic nanoparticles with the K-ras (12-Val) mutant peptide in the killing of different pancreatic cancer cell lines in vivo and in vitro. Peripheral blood DCs were induced by rhGM-CSF and IL-4 and cultured. DCs were sensitized by whole antigen of PANC-1 with expression of K-ras mutant, K-ras mutant peptide (K-ras+peptide) and cationic nanoparticles with K-ras mutant peptide (K-ras+peptide-CNP), respectively. Cell surface markers were measured by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation was detected by the 3H-TdR test, and IL-12 and IFN‑γ secretion was detected by ELISA. 125I-UdR was used to measure the killing effect of CTLs. The antitumor activity of CTLs in tumor-bearing nude mouse models prepared with PANC-1 and SW1990 cells was evaluated. Results showed that, compared with K-ras+peptide, low concentrations of K-ras+peptide-CNP were effectively presented by DCs (P<0.05). CTLs induced by DCs pulsed with whole tumor antigen had a significantly greater killing effect (P<0.05) on PANC-1 and SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells compared with K-ras+peptide- and K-ras+peptide-CNP-induced CTLs. CTLs induced by DCs pulsed with K-ras+peptide and K-ras+peptide- CNP had a specific killing effect (P<0.05) on PANC-1 cells and no effect (P>0.05) on SW1990 cells. In conclusion, cationic nanoparticles with the K-ras (12-Val) mutant peptide can be effectively presented by DCs at a low concentration. CTLs induced by K-ras+peptide-CNP had specific killing activity for the pancreatic cancer cell line with the K-ras mutant and significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased the survival time of tumor-bearing nude mice. Although this study confirmed that whole cell antigen induced a good antitumor immune response, the possibility of immune tolerance and autoimmunity which has been previously proven contribute to the difficulty in the application of this DC vaccine.
"TLR-3 agonist complexed with cationic liposome augments vaccine-elicited anti-tumor immunity by enhancing TLR3-IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 signaling and type I IFN in DCs (Wang et al., 2012). In addition, DCs pulsed with tumor Ag-loaded cationic NPs has been successfully reported to induce a specific cytotoxic response against different pancreatic cancer cell lines in vivo and in vitro (Tan et al., 2011). Although different types of NP-based drug delivery systems such as polymer conjugations, micelles, and liposome are available, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) falls superior. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are one of the most frequently occurring tumors found worldwide. Surgery remains the primary treatment for most solid tumors and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy are limited by lack of specificity and toxicity. In view of the poor survival rate, there is a great need to introduce new and effective therapeutic modalities. Recently, dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccines are being explored as a promising therapeutic strategy but their success is limited by the tumor-induced immune escape mechanisms. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of clinical trials conducted using this approach. It also showcases the necessity of exploring nano-engineered strategies for improving the clinical utility of DC-vaccination for GI tract malignancies to overcome immune tolerance.
Journal of Drug Targeting 10/2013; DOI:10.3109/1061186X.2012.731069 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is to investigate the role of the CIKs cocultured with K-ras-DCs in killing of pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 (K-ras(+)) and SW1990 (K-ras(-)).
CIKs induced by IFN-γ, IL-2, and anti-CD3 monoantibody, K-ras-DCCIKs obtained by cocultivation of k-ras-DCs and CIKs. Surface markers examined by FACS. IFN-γ IL-12 ,CCL19 and CCL22 detected by ELISA. Proliferation of various CIKs tested via 3H-TdR. Killing activities of k-ras-DCCIKs and CTLs examined with 125IUdR.
CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) were highly expressed by K-ras-DCCIKs. In its supernatant, IFN-γ, IL-12, CCL19 and CCL22 were significantly higher than those in DCCIK and CIK. The killing rate of K-ras-DCCIK was greater than those of CIK and CTL. CTL induced by K-ras-DCs only inhibited the PANC-1 cells.
The k-ras-DC can enhance CIK's proliferation and increase the killing effect on pancreatic cancer cell. The CTLs induced by K-ras-DC can only inhibit PANC-1 cells. In this study, K-ras-DCCIKs also show the specific inhibition to PANC-1 cells, their tumor suppression is almost same with the CTLs, their total tumor inhibitory efficiency is higher than that of the CTLs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the function of dendritic cell (DC) is suppressed in pancreatic cancer patients; however, the detailed mechanism involved in it remains unclear. Here, we used medium conditioned by a highly metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 [BxPC-3-conditioned medium (BxCM)] to culture human CD14(+) monocyte-derived DCs in vitro. Both DC differentiation and antigen presentation function were inhibited by BxCM. The microRNA-146a (miRNA-146a) expression is aberrantly up-regulated in BxCM-treated DCs. In addition, inhibition of aberrant miRNA-146a expression partly rescues the BxCM-induced defects in differentiation and function of DCs, which may be through regulation of Smad4 expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant miRNA-146a expression is one of main factors responsible for inhibition of DC maturation and antigen presentation function, and this inhibitory effect on DCs may be due to the repression of Smad4 mediated signal pathway by BxCM.
Medical Oncology 02/2012; 29(4):2814-23. DOI:10.1007/s12032-012-0175-2 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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