Correction: a novel bayesian DNA motif comparison method for clustering and retrieval.

PLoS Computational Biology (Impact Factor: 4.87). 05/2011; 7(5). DOI: 10.1371/annotation/d876137b-59c5-48cf-8491-c8cf12f26a9b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT [This corrects the article on p. e1000010 in vol. 4.].

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    ABSTRACT: As an increasing number of eukaryotic genomes are being sequenced, comparative studies aimed at detecting regulatory elements in intergenic sequences are becoming more prevalent. Most comparative methods for transcription factor (TF) binding site discovery make use of global or local alignments of orthologous regulatory regions to assess whether a particular DNA site is conserved across related organisms, and thus more likely to be functional. Since binding sites are usually short, sometimes degenerate, and often independent of orientation, alignment algorithms may not align them correctly. Here, we present a novel, alignment-free approach for using conservation information for TF binding site discovery. We relax the definition of conserved sites: we consider a DNA site within a regulatory region to be conserved in an orthologous sequence if it occurs anywhere in that sequence, irrespective of orientation. We use this definition to derive informative priors over DNA sequence positions, and incorporate these priors into a Gibbs sampling algorithm for motif discovery. Our approach is simple and fast. It requires neither sequence alignments nor the phylogenetic relationships between the orthologous sequences, yet it is more effective on real biological data than methods that do.
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    ABSTRACT: The Yin Yang 1 (YY1) transcription factor is a master regulator of development, essential for early embryogenesis and adult tissues formation. YY1 is the mammalian orthologue of Pleiohomeotic, one of the transcription factors that binds Polycomb DNA response elements in Drosophila melanogaster and mediates Polycomb group proteins (PcG) recruitment to DNA. Despite several publications pointing at YY1 having a similar role in mammalians, others showed features of YY1 that are not compatible with PcG functions. Here, we show that, in mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, YY1 has genome-wide PcG-independent activities while it is still stably associated with the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, as well as with novel RNA helicase activities. YY1 binds chromatin in close proximity of the transcription start site of highly expressed genes. Loss of YY1 functions preferentially led to a down-regulation of target genes expression, as well as to an up-regulation of several small non-coding RNAs, suggesting a role for YY1 in regulating small RNA biogenesis. Finally, we found that YY1 is a novel player of Myc-related transcription factors and that its coordinated binding at promoters potentiates gene expression, proposing YY1 as an active component of the Myc transcription network that links ES to cancer cells.
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