Visualizing the innate and adaptive immune responses underlying allograft rejection by two-photon microscopy.
ABSTRACT Transplant rejection involves a coordinated attack of the innate and the adaptive immune systems of the host. To investigate this dynamic process and the contributions of both donor and host cells, we developed an ear skin graft model suitable for intravital imaging. We found that donor dermal dendritic cells (DCs) migrated rapidly from the graft and were replaced by host CD11b(+) mononuclear cells. The infiltrating host cells captured donor antigen, reached the draining lymph node and cross-primed graft-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, we defined the mechanisms by which host T cells target graft cells. We found that primed T cells entered the graft from the surrounding tissue and localized selectively at the dermis-epidermis junction. Later, CD8(+) T cells disseminated throughout the graft and many became arrested. These results provide insights into the antigen presentation pathway and the stepwise progression of CD8(+) T cell activity, thereby offering a framework for evaluating how immunotherapy might abrogate the key steps in allograft rejection.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Susanna Celli, Jul 10, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Fadi Lakkis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review summarizes emerging concepts related to the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) and innate immunity in organ transplant rejection. First, it highlights the primary role that recipient, rather than donor, DCs have in rejection and reviews their origin and function in the transplanted kidney. Second, it introduces the novel concept that recognition of allogeneic non-self by host monocytes (referred to here as innate allorecognition) is necessary for initiating rejection by inducing monocyte differentiation into mature, antigen-presenting DCs. Both concepts provide opportunities for preventing rejection by targeting monocytes or DCs.Kidney International advance online publication, 28 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.430.Kidney International 01/2015; 87(4). DOI:10.1038/ki.2014.430 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In allogeneic transplantation, including the B6 anti-BALB.B settings, H60 and H4 are two representative dominant minor histocompatibility antigens that induce strong CD8 T-cell responses. With different distribution patterns, H60 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, whereas H4 is ubiquitously expressed. H60-specific CD8 T-cell response has been known to be dominant in most cases of B6 anti-BALB.B allo-responses, except in the case of skin transplantation. To understand the mechanism underlying the subdominance of H60 during allogeneic skin transplantation, we investigated the dynamics of the H60-specific CD8 T cells in B6 mice transplanted with allogeneic BALB.B tail skin. Unexpectedly, longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometric analyses revealed that H60-specific CD8 T cells were not always subdominant to H4-specific cells but instead showed a brief dominance before the H4 response became predominant. H60-specific CD8 T cells could expand in the draining lymph node and migrate to the BALB.B allografts, indicating their active participation in the anti-BALB.B allo-response. Enhancing the frequencies of H60-reactive CD8 T cells prior to skin transplantation reversed the immune hierarchy between H60 and H4. Additionally, H60 became predominant when antigen presentation was limited to the direct pathway. However, when antigen presentation was restricted to the indirect pathway, the expansion of H60-specific CD8 T cells was limited, whereas H4-specific CD8 T cells expanded significantly, suggesting that the temporary immunodominance and eventual subdominance of H60 could be due to their reliance on the direct antigen presentation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the immunodominance phenomenon following allogeneic tissue transplantation.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2015; 47(2). DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.107 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have developed a therapeutic vaccine consisting of a mixture of lethally-irradiated allogeneic cutaneous melanoma cell lines with BCG and GM-CSF as adjuvants. The CSF-470 vaccine is currently being assayed in a Phase II-III trial against medium-dose IFN-α2b. All vaccinated patients immunized intradermally developed large edematous erythema reactions, which then transformed into subcutaneous nodules active for several months. However, vaccine injection sites were not routinely biopsied. We describe the case of a female patient, previously classified as stage III, but who, due to the simultaneous discovery of bone metastases only received one vaccination was withdrawn from the study, and continued her treatment elsewhere. This patient developed a post-vaccination nodule which was surgically removed 7 weeks later, and allowed to analyze the reactivity and immune profiling of the inoculation site. An inflammatory reaction with zones of fibrosis, high irrigation, and brisk lymphoid infiltration, primarily composed of CD8(+) and CD20(+) lymphocytes, was observed. There were no remaining BCG bacilli, and scarce CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells were determined. MART-1 Ag was found throughout the vaccination site. CD11c(+) Ag presenting cells were either dispersed or forming dense nests. Some CD11c(+) cells proliferated; most of them contained intracellular MART-1 Ag, and some interacted with CD8(+) lymphocytes. These observations suggest a potent, long-lasting local inflammatory response with recruitment of Ag-presenting cells that incorporate melanoma Ags, probably leading to Ag presentation to naïve T cells.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:144. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00144