Postnatal lung development requires proliferation and differentiation of specific cell types at precise times to promote proper alveolar formation. Hyperoxic exposure can disrupt alveolarization by inhibiting cell growth; however, it is not fully understood how this is mediated. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) is highly expressed in the lung and plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues. After 72 h of hyperoxia, C/EBPα expression was significantly enhanced in the lungs of newborn mice. The increased C/EBPα protein was predominantly located in alveolar type II cells. Silencing of C/EBPα with a transpulmonary injection of C/EBPα small interfering RNA (siRNA) prior to hyperoxic exposure reduced expression of markers of type I cell and differentiation typically observed after hyperoxia but did not rescue the altered lung morphology at 72 h. Nevertheless, when C/EBPα hyperoxia-exposed siRNA-injected mice were allowed to recover for 2 wk in room air, lung epithelial cell proliferation was increased and lung morphology was restored compared with hyperoxia-exposed control siRNA-injected mice. These data suggest that C/EBPα is an important regulator of postnatal alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during injury and repair.
"While both differentiation of the cells lining airways and alveolar spaces, as well as alveolar septation were retained, with normal lung structure, an amplified inflammatory response to hyperoxia causing severe damage is observed in these mice, suggesting that C/EBPα is required for cytoprotection . Another study using siRNA to target Cebpa found that mice with inhibited expression of C/EBPα display hyperproliferation and impaired type II pneumocyte differentiation after recovery from hyperoxic challenge . In addition, a recent study documented a critical role for C/EBPα in regulating the repair processes via regulation of the protease balance following airway damage , suggesting that C/EBPα is key in protecting the pulmonary epithelium. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premature infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Lung immaturity and impaired epithelial differentiation contribute together with invasive oxygen treatment to BPD onset and disease progression. Substantial evidence suggests that prematurity is associated with long term pulmonary consequences. Moreover, there is increasing concern that lung immaturity at birth may increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon remains unknown, largely as a consequence of inadequate experimental models and clinical follow-up studies. Recent evidence suggests that defective transcriptional regulation of epithelial differentiation and maturation may contribute to BPD pathogenesis as well as early onset of COPD. The transcriptional regulators CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α and C/EBPβ, SMAD family member (Smad)3, GATA binding protein (GATA)6, and NK2 homeobox (NKX)2-1 are reported to be involved in processes contributing to pathogenesis of both BPD and COPD. Increased knowledge of the mechanisms contributing to early onset COPD among BPD survivors could translate into improved treatment strategies and reduced frequency of respiratory disorders among adult survivors of BPD. In this paper, we introduce critical transcriptional regulators in epithelial differentiation and summarize the current knowledge on the contribution of impaired epithelial maturation to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disorders.
Pulmonary Medicine 12/2012; 2012:196194. DOI:10.1155/2012/196194
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the newborn, alveolarization continues postnatally and can be disrupted by hyperoxia, leading to long-lasting consequences on lung function. We wanted to better understand the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible form of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and repair. Although it was not observed after 3 days of hyperoxia alone, when exposed to hyperoxia and allowed to recover in air (O2/air recovered), neonatal HO-1 knockout (KO) mice had enlarged alveolar spaces and increased lung apoptosis as well as decreased lung protein translation and dysregulated gene expression in the recovery phase of the injury. Associated with these changes, KO had sustained low levels of active β-catenin and lesser lung nuclear heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) protein levels, whereas lung nuclear hnRNPK was increased in transgenic mice over-expressing nuclear HO-1. Disruption of HO-1 may enhance hnRNPK-mediated inhibition of protein translation and subsequently impair the β-catenin/hnRNPK regulated gene expression required for coordinated lung repair and regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extreme preterm birth exposes the saccular lung to multiple teratogens, which ultimately retard alveolar development. Specifically, therapeutic high level oxygen supplementation adversely affects the premature lungs and results in blunted alveolarization. Prolonged hyperoxic lung injury has previously been shown to upregulate the matricellular protein Periostin (Postn) and stimulate ectopic accumulation of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) myofibroblasts. Therapies that promote lung septation are lacking largely due to a lack of reliable early biomarkers of injury. Thus, we determined if Postn expression correlated with the initial appearance of myofibroblasts in the saccular lung and was required for early alveolar development.
Lung development in C57BL/6J mice following room-air (RA, 21%-O2) or continuous hyperoxia (85%-O2) from birth (P0) through postnatal day P14 was correlated with Postn and αSMA expression. Alveolarization in Postn knockout mice exposed to room-air, 60%-, and 85%-O2 was also examined.
Postn was widely expressed in distal lung septa through P2 to P4 and peak expression coincided with accumulation of saccular myofibroblasts. Initially, 85%-O2 prematurely downregulated Postn and αSMA expression and suppressed proliferation before the first evidence of distal lung simplification at P4. By P14, chronic 85%-O2 resulted in secondary upregulation of Postn and αSMA in blunted septa. Myofibroblast differentiation and alveolar development was unaffected in Postn null mice and acute 85%-O2 exposure equally inhibited septal formation in Postn null and wild-type littermates.
Postn expression is tightly correlated with the presence of αSMA-myofibroblasts and is a novel early biomarker of acutely inhibited alveolar septation during a crucial window of lung development. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:373–385, 2013.
Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 06/2013; 97(6). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23149 · 2.09 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.