Stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy: normal tissue dose constraints of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are radiation planning and delivery techniques used for the treatment of intracranial and spine/spinal cord tumors and targets. For cranial SRS and SRT, critical normal tissues/structures include the brainstem, cranial nerves, cochlea and normal brain parenchyma. For spine SRS/SRT, critical normal tissues/structures include the spinal cord, cauda equina as well as neighboring organs. This paper reviews clinical studies investigating central nervous system dose tolerances after cranial or spinal SRS/SRT. The impact of dose, volume, fractionation, and other relevant clinic-pathologic variables are discussed, as are limitations of the published data.
SourceAvailable from: Kazuhiro Ohtakara[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, imaging findings and relevant dosimetric parameters of cases presenting with cerebral cyst formation (CCF) after single or oligo-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for non-nasopharyngeal head and neck malignancies (HNMs). Methods: We identified four cases with the follow-up duration of 5.7-9.1 years from SRT. The irradiated sites included the middle ear in one case and the ethmoid sinus in three cases, two of the latter possessed brain invasion. The chronological changes in MR images and the dose-volume histogram of the adjacent brain tissue were evaluated. Results: CCF with or without multiple septi presented with a latency of 29-86 months (median, 45.5 months), which was preceded by either non-specific parenchymal enhancement or typical radiation necrosis. In three cases, CCF adjacent to the frontal base resultantly caused mass effect, and two of these three cases required surgical intervention at 38 and 54 months, respectively, after SRT for alleviation of symptoms. The relation of the irradiated brain volumes to the biological equivalent dose based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) and LQ-cubic models was represented as a threshold. Conclusion: When contemplating SRT for HNM cases, caution should be exercised to the dose-volume relation-ship of the adjacent brain tissue, especially the frontal base, as well as other critical structures, and long-term vigilant follow-up is also mandatory. Advances in knowledge: CCF can occur as an unusual consequence of late brain injury with variable but mostly long latency following SRT for non-nasopharyngeal HNMs adjacent to the brain, even superficial parts that were previously irradiated via conventional radiotherapy.The British journal of radiology 05/2014; 87(1037):20140071. DOI:10.1259/bjr.20140071 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate potential sparing of critical neurological structures (CNSs) during radiosurgery of vestibular schwannoma (VS) employing different techniques and dose prescription methods. Materials and Methods: Fused CT and MRI datasets of eight patients with unilateral VS representing a wide range of target volume (0.48 to 12.08 cc; mean = 3.56 cc), shape and proximity to CNSs such as cochlea, trigeminal nerve and brainstem were re-planned employing static conformal field (SCF), dynamic conformal arc (DCA) and intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) techniques. For every patient, five plans were created for a fixed margin dose of 12 Gy prescribed at 80% in three plans (SCF_80%, DCA_80%, and IMRS_80%) and 50% in another two plans (SCF_50% and DCA_50%). All plans were compared using standard dosimetric indices. Results: Primary goal of every plan to cover ≥99% of target volume with 12 Gy was fulfilled for all patients with minimum significant dose to target (D 99 ) ≥11.99 Gy. Best conformity index (CI Paddick = 0.62 ± 0.12) was observed in SCF_80% and DCA_80% plans whereas; sharpest dose gradient index of 3.40 ± 0.40 was resulted from DCA_50%. All five plans resulted similar maximum dose to brainstem (11.04 ± 2.23 to 11.53 ± 1.10 Gy), cochlea (9.02 ± 1.79 to 10.15 ± 1.26 Gy) and trigeminal nerve (11.55 ± 1.38 to 12.19 ± 2.12 Gy). Among 80% prescription plans, IMRS_80% reduces mean and D 5 (P < 0.05) to all CNSs. Prescription of dose at 50% isodose sharpened the dose gradient and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mean dose and D 5 to all CNSs at the cost of target conformity (P = 0.01). Mean dose to cochlea and trigeminal nerve were least at 4.53 ± 0.86 and 6.95 ± 2.02 Gy from SCF_50% and highest at 6.65 ± 0.70 and 8.40 ± 2.11 Gy from DCA_80% plans respectively. Conclusion: This dosimetric data provides a guideline for choosing optimum treatment option and scope of inter institutional dosimetric comparison for further improvement in radiosurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma (VS).Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 01/2014; 10(1):29-37. DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.131353 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm3] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×108 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular canal. Dose volume histogram (DVH) analyses revealed much smoother DVH curves for the dual resolution sandwich phantom when compared to the SR phantom. In conclusion, MBMC simulations using a dual resolution sandwich phantom improved simulation spatial resolution for skull base IMRS therapy. More detailed dose analyses for small critical structures can be made available to help in clinical judgment.Radiation Physics and Chemistry 10/2014; 104. DOI:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2013.11.033 · 1.19 Impact Factor