Stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy: Normal tissue dose constraints of the central nervous system
ABSTRACT Single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are radiation planning and delivery techniques used for the treatment of intracranial and spine/spinal cord tumors and targets. For cranial SRS and SRT, critical normal tissues/structures include the brainstem, cranial nerves, cochlea and normal brain parenchyma. For spine SRS/SRT, critical normal tissues/structures include the spinal cord, cauda equina as well as neighboring organs. This paper reviews clinical studies investigating central nervous system dose tolerances after cranial or spinal SRS/SRT. The impact of dose, volume, fractionation, and other relevant clinic-pathologic variables are discussed, as are limitations of the published data.
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- "Although the linear-quadratic model has limitations - including overestimated cell destruction10) - it provides valuable information about tumor control and normal tissue toxicity.19) Radiation triggers a multitude of cellular effects that result in cell death outside the mitotic pathway. "
ABSTRACT: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) represents an increasingly utilized modality in the treatment of intracranial and extracranial pathologies. Stereotactic spine radiosurgery (SSR) uses an alternative strategy to increase the probability of local control by delivering large cumulative doses of radiation therapy (RT) in only a few fractions. SSR in the treatment of intramedullary lesions remains in its infancy-this review summarizes the current literature regarding the use of SSR for treating intramedullary spinal lesions. Several studies have suggested that SSR should be guided by the principles of intracranial radiosurgery with radiation doses placed no further than 1-2mm apart, thereby minimizing exposure to the surrounding spinal cord and allowing for delivery of higher radiation doses to target areas. Maximum dose-volume relationships and single-point doses with SSR for the spinal cord are currently under debate. Prior reports of SR for intramedullary metastases, arteriovenous malformations, ependymomas, and hemangioblastomas demonstrated favorable outcomes. In the management of intrame-dullary spinal lesions, SSR appears to provide an effective and safe treatment compared to conventional RT. SSR should likely be utilized for select patient-scenarios given the potential for radiation-induced myelopathy, though high-quality literature on SSR for intramedullary lesions remains limited.03/2013; 10(1):1-6. DOI:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.1.1
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ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical outcomes of single or oligo-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) using dynamic conformal arcs (DCA) for head and neck tumors (HNTs). Thirty-four consecutive patients with 35 lesions treated between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively evaluated, of whom 85.7 % had recurrent or metastatic disease, and 45.7 and 34.3 % had previous radiotherapy and surgery, respectively. The median SRT dose was 22.3 Gy (11.2-32.8) in 2-4 fractions with a median interval of 7 days and 10.4 Gy (9.2-12.4) in one fraction. SRT was combined with upfront conventionally fractionated RT in 48.6 % of patients. The median follow-up periods were 18.4 months (2-84.1) for the entire cohort and 49.6 months for the survivors. The 1- and 2-year local control (LC) rates were 84.3 and 70.5 %, with the 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates of 78.6 and 51.6 %. LC was significantly better for tumor volumes <25.6 cm(3) (p = 0.001). OS was significantly longer in patients without any disease outside the SRT site (p < 0.001), whereas LC after the SRT did not affect the OS. Late adverse events occurred in 9 patients, including cranial nerve (CN) injury (grade 3/4) in 2, brain radionecrosis in 5 (grade 1), and fatal bleeding in 2 patients harboring uncontrolled lesions abutting the carotid artery. DCA-based SRT can confer relatively long-term LC with acceptable toxicity in selected patients with HNTs. The patients with CN involvement or tumor volume ≥25.6 cm(3) were deemed unsuitable for this treatment regimen.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 04/2012; 138(9):1511-22. DOI:10.1007/s00432-012-1225-z · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiosurgery as treatment for arteriovenous malformations has shown a good efficacy in reducing intracranial bleeding due to rupture. The choice of therapeutic modalities is based on evolutive risk and arteriovenous malformations volume, patient profile and risks stratification following therapeutic techniques (microsurgery, radiosurgery, embolization). Nidus size, arteriovenous malformations anatomical localization, prior embolization or bleeding, distributed dose are predictive factors for radiosurgery's good results and tolerance. This review article will highlight arteriovenous malformations radiosurgery indications and discuss recent irradiation alternatives for large arteriovenous malformation volumes.Cancer/Radiothérapie 06/2012; 16:S46–S56. DOI:10.1016/j.canrad.2012.05.003 · 1.41 Impact Factor