Corneal Graft Survival and Intraocular Pressure Control after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty in Eyes with Pre-existing Glaucoma

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
American Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 05/2011; 152(1):48-54.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.01.030
Source: PubMed


To describe the effect of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal graft survival in eyes with pre-existing glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Retrospective, observational case series.
We performed a retrospective review of 184 eyes that underwent DSAEK from January 2007 through May 2009 at the Singapore National Eye Centre. Eyes with pre-existing glaucoma or ocular hypertension that underwent DSAEK were included, whereas those with a follow-up period of less than 12 months were excluded. Main outcome measures were graft failure and need for additional IOP-lowering treatment after DSAEK.
Forty-seven eyes (51% male; mean age, 66.6 years) with glaucoma underwent DSAEK and were followed-up for a mean of 27.3 ± 8.5 months. Before DSAEK, 60% were taking at least 1 topical IOP-lowering medication, whereas 14 eyes (30%) previously had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery. After DSAEK, visual acuity improved by a mean of 5.4 ± 3.7 Snellen lines. Seventeen percent of grafts failed at a mean of 12.8 ± 7.0 months. The mean IOP increased by 2.1 mm Hg to 16.0 ± 2.5 mm Hg, with 62% requiring additional IOP-lowering treatment and 28% needing filtration surgery at a mean of 9.3 months after DSAEK. Eyes without prior filtration surgery and eyes that underwent additional intraoperative procedures during DSAEK were 10 and 18 times more likely to require IOP-lowering treatment after DSAEK (P = .002 and P = .008), respectively.
With prompt and appropriate intervention, IOP in glaucomatous eyes undergoing DSAEK can be controlled with minimal increase after DSAEK. Eyes with previous filtration surgery require fewer medications to control elevated IOP than eyes that have not had previous surgery.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the outcomes of trabeculectomy surgery after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) to penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Retrospective case-control study. Patients within an institutional setting who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) for uncontrolled elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after corneal graft surgery were included. Patients with pre-existing glaucoma were excluded. Twenty patients with trabeculectomy after DSAEK and 41 patients with trabeculectomy after PK were analyzed. The main outcome measure was IOP control at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative interventions including reinstatement of IOP-lowering medications, bleb needling with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) or further glaucoma surgery, and the incidence of complications related to trabeculectomy and/or corneal graft surgery. There was no difference in pre-trabeculectomy IOP between DSAEK vs PK group (35.5 ± 10.1 vs 32.9 ± 8.9, P = .31). At 12 months after trabeculectomy, mean IOP in the DSAEK group was lower compared to the PK controls (10.6 ± 3.2 vs 14.6 ± 8.5, P = .04). The proportion of patients who achieved an IOP less than 12 mm Hg was significantly higher in the DSAEK group (80.0% vs 48.6%, P = .03). The proportions of eyes that required intervention after trabeculectomy were comparable between the 2 groups (DSAEK vs PK, all interventions: 20.0% vs 39.5%, P = .15; IOP-lowering medications required: 15.0% vs 39.5%, P = .08; needling with 5FU: 20.0% vs 23.7%, P > .99; further glaucoma surgery: 0% vs 13.2%, P = .15). Corneal graft failure arising after trabeculectomy was seen in 10.0% of DSAEK cases and in 10.5% of PK controls (P = 1.0). Compared to trabeculectomy after PK, trabeculectomy after DSAEK achieved lower mean IOP at 12 months, and a larger proportion of DSAEK patients achieved an IOP of less than 12 mm Hg. There was no difference in the need for intervention after trabeculectomy, or incidence of other complications. Trabeculectomy is an effective surgical procedure for the management of postgraft ocular hypertension in DSAEK patients, and DSAEK may have an advantage in terms of success of trabeculectomy surgery over PK.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate long-term corneal graft survival and risk factors for graft failure after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in eyes with preexisting glaucoma. Retrospective case control study. A total of 835 DSEK cases performed by a single surgeon between December 2003 and August 2007 were reviewed. Only the first treated eye of each patient with at least 1 year follow-up was included, resulting in 453 cases; 342 had no prior glaucoma (C), 65 had medically managed preexisting glaucoma (G), and 46 had prior glaucoma surgery (GS). Corneal graft failure was defined as persistent corneal edema resulting in irreversible loss of optical clarity. Corneal graft survival in the 3 groups was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Nine potential risk factors for graft failure were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate analysis. These methods took length of follow-up into consideration. Corneal graft survival and risk factors influencing long-term corneal endothelial failure. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year graft survival was 99%, 99%, 97%, 97%, and 96%, respectively, in group C; 100%, 98%, 98%, 96%, and 90%, respectively, in group G; and 96%, 91%, 84%, 69%, and 48%, respectively, in group GS (P < 0.001). In the GS group, the 5-year survival rate for eyes with a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) and those with trabeculectomy only was 25% and 59%, respectively. Indication for DSEK, surgically managed glaucoma, type and number of prior glaucoma surgeries, and occurrence of a rejection episode were the significant risk factors for graft survival in univariate analysis. Several factors were correlated; in a multivariate model, prior glaucoma surgery (P < 0.0001) and a prior rejection episode (0.0023) were the significant risk factors for corneal endothelial failure. Patients with medically managed glaucoma had significantly better 5-year graft survival than those with surgically managed glaucoma. A prior glaucoma shunt or trabeculectomy significantly increased the risk of DSEK endothelial failure. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
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