The effectiveness and safety of various antipsychotics was evaluated in a long-term study on 47 patients, 29 with schizophrenia and 18 with schizoaffective disorder, aged 10 to 17 years (mean 15.5) at onset. Follow-up ranged from 3 years (all 47 patients) to 11 years (19 patients). Data were collected on the following antipsychotics: haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and clozapine. Cases with positive response were significantly more frequent with clozapine as compared to haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Risperidone was significantly better than haloperidol at the 3-year follow-up. A comparison of the degree of clinical improvement evaluated with PANSS and CGI in patients treated with drugs in subsequent periods showed clozapine led to significantly greater improvement as compared to haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine, and risperidone as compared to haloperidol. Data on long-term functioning significantly favored clozapine as compared to all the other drugs. Discontinuation due to side effects involved 20% patients with clozapine, lower percentage with the other drugs. The results of this study on early-onset schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders confirm that even in the long-term, clozapine is more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Despite a relevant incidence of adverse effects, clozapine seems to have unique effectiveness in treating children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that was approved, relatively recently, for use in adolescents with schizophrenia. Objective: The aim was to discuss efficacy and tolerability issues of aripiprazole in adolescents suffering from schizophrenia. Method: A Medline search identified only three studies and one post hoc analysis for one of them, concerning the use of aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia. Finally, one of the studies was excluded because of the small number of cases treated with aripiprazole. Results: Based on the clinical evidence, including data from two short-terms clinical trials and one post-hoc analysis of one of the abovementioned studies, aripiprazole seemed generally safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole at doses of 10 to 30 mg/day was more efficacious in ameliorating the symptoms (including hostility) of schizophrenia than was placebo. It was associated with low number and mild-to-moderate intensity of adverse events, and with no clinically relevant findings in ECGs, vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. The most common adverse events were extrapyramidal disorder, somnolence, and tremor. Also aripiprazole is unlikely to be associated with hyperprolactinemia and clinically significant weight gain. Conclusion: Scant information exists to evaluate the use of aripiprazole in early-onset schizophrenia, due to the lack of published studies. The initial encouraging results provide further support and point out the necessity for systematic research on the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole in pediatric patients suffering from schizophrenia.
Current developments in psychopharmacology 05/2012; 1(2):117-121. DOI:10.2174/2211556011201020117
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the effects of treatment with an atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine or risperidone) on quality of life (QoL) and to document adverse effects in 115 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attended the ambulatory service of Hospital Dr. João Machado, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables were compared. The QoL Scale validated for Brazil (QLS-BR) was used to evaluate QoL, and adverse effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Patients in both drug groups showed severe impairment in the occupational domain of the QLS-BR. Global QLS-BR scores indicated impairment among risperidone users and severe impairment among olanzapine users. The most significant side effects were associated with risperidone, including asthenia/lassitude/fatigue, somnolence/sedation, paresthesia, change in visual accommodation, increased salivation, diarrhea, orthostatic posture, palpitations/tachycardia, erythema, photosensitivity, weight loss, galactorrhea, decreased sexual desire, erectile/orgasmic dysfunction, vaginal dryness, headache, and physical dependence. QoL was impaired in patients using olanzapine and in those using risperidone. Risperidone use was associated with psychic, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects and other side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric behavioral and affective disorders often require antipsychotic therapy, in combination with psychotherapeutic interventions, for their treatment and stabilization. Although pharmacotherapy can include either typical or atypical antipsychotics, the latter are generally preferred because of their apparently lower risk of adverse effects. Recent controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of some of these agents (including aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone) in adolescent schizophrenia and children or adolescent bipolar mania, or to treat severe aggression and self-injury in the context of autism in children and adolescents. Although few studies have systematically monitored their short- and, more importantly, long-term safety, current evidence indicates that sedation, hyperprolactinemia, and metabolic abnormalities such as excess weight gain, diabetes, and related cardiovascular effects were clinically relevant adverse effects in young patients, with the individual agents differing in their propensity to induce these effects. When prescribing antipsychotics for children and adolescents, physicians should therefore be aware of the specific adverse effect profiles and patients should be closely monitored for the short- and long-term development of adverse events. In pediatric patients, the starting dose, titration plan, and maintenance dose of antipsychotics must be based on their pharmacokinetics and metabolism, as in adults. Because there are significant individual differences in drug and active metabolite(s) pharmacokinetics and metabolism, which may be further affected by a number of confounding factors (including demographic variables, phenotype and drug interactions), therapeutic drug monitoring may be a valid tool for individualizing dosage, but its interpretation should also take account of changes in pharmacodynamic sensitivity with the development during childhood and adolescence.
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