Article

A cembranoid protects acute hippocampal slices against paraoxon neurotoxicity.

Department of Biochemistry, Universidad Central Del Caribe, Bayamón, PR 00960-6032.
Toxicology in Vitro (Impact Factor: 3.21). 05/2011; 25(7):1468-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.04.021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and as a result can cause a life threatening cholinergic crisis. Current medical countermeasures, which typically include atropine and oximes target the cholinergic crisis and are effective in decreasing mortality but do not sufficiently protect against delayed neurological deficits. There is, therefore, a need to develop neuroprotective drugs to prevent long-term neurological deficits. We used acute hippocampal slices to test the hypothesis that 4R,6R-cembratrienediol (4R) protects against functional damage caused by the OP paraoxon (POX). To assess hippocampal function, we measured synaptically evoked population spikes (PSs). Application of 4R reversed POX inhibition of PSs and the EC(50) of this effect was 0.8 μM. Atropine alone did not protect against POX neurotoxicity, but it did enhance protection by 4R. Pralidoxime partially regenerated AChE activity and protected against POX inhibition of PSs. 4R did not regenerate AChE suggesting that under our experimental conditions, the deleterious effect of POX on hippocampal function is not directly related to AChE inhibition. In conclusion, 4R is a promising neuroprotective compound against OP neurotoxins.

1 Bookmark
 · 
178 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an organophosphorous insecticide used as a surrogate for the more toxic chemical warfare nerve agent sarin. DFP produces neurotoxicity in vivo and irreversibly decreases the area of population spikes recorded from the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices. (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-Cembratriene-4,6-diol (1) is a neuroprotective natural cembranoid that reverses DFP-induced damage both in vivo and in the hippocampal slice. Cembranoid 1 acts by noncompetitive inhibition of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This study aims at establishing a preliminary structure-activity relationship to define the neuroprotective cembranoid pharmacophores using the hippocampal slice assay and pharmacophore modeling. Fourteen natural, semisynthetic, or biocatalytic cembranoid analogues 2-15 related to 1 were tested for their capacity to protect the population spikes from DFP-induced damage and intrinsic toxicity. Twelve cembranoids caused significant reversal of DFP toxicity; only 3 active analogues displayed minor intrinsic toxicity at 10μM. The C-4 epimer of 1 (2) and the 4-O-methyl ether analogue of 1 (3), were totally devoid of neuroprotective activity. The results suggested a model for cembranoid binding where the hydrophobic ring surface binds to a hydrophobic (Hbic) patch on the receptor molecule and an electronegative atom (oxygen or sulfur) in proper spatial relationship to the ring surface interacts with an electropositive group in the receptor binding site. A pharmacophore model consisting of 1 hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), 2 Hbic, and 10 exclusion spheres was established using HipHop-REFINE and supported the above mentioned pharmacophoric hypothesis.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 05/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many organophosphorous esters synthesized for applications in industry, agriculture, or warfare irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and acute poisoning with these compounds causes life-threatening cholinergic overstimulation. Following classical emergency treatment with atropine, an oxime, and a benzodiazepine, surviving victims often suffer brain neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no pharmacological treatment to prevent this brain injury. Here we show that a cyclic diterpenoid, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R) ameliorates the damage caused by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in the hippocampal area CA1. DFP has been frequently used as a surrogate for the warfare nerve agent sarin. In rats, DFP is lethal at the dose used to cause brain damage. Therefore, to observe brain damage in survivors, the death rate was reduced by pre-administration of the peripherally acting antidotes pyridostigmine and methyl atropine or its analogue ipratropium. Pyridostigmine bromide, methyl atropine nitrate, and ipratropium bromide were dissolved in saline and injected intramuscularly at 0.1mg/kg, 20mg/kg, and 23mg/kg, respectively. DFP (9mg/kg) dissolved in cold water was injected intraperitoneally. 4R (6mg/kg) dissolved in DMSO was injected subcutaneously, either 1hour before or 5 or 24hours after DFP. Neurodegeneration was assessed with Fluoro-Jade B and amino cupric silver staining; neuroinflammation was measured by the expression of nestin, a marker of activated astrocytes. Forty-eight hours after DFP administration, 4R decreased the number of dead neurons by half when injected before or after DFP. 4R also significantly decreased the number of activated astrocytes. These data suggest that 4R is a promising new drug that could change the therapeutic paradigm for acute poisoning with organophosphorous compounds by the implementation of a second-stage intervention after the classical countermeasure treatment.
    NeuroToxicology 09/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology in Vitro 12/2011; · 3.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
62 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014