A high fat diet-induced impaired glucose metabolism in mice with targeted deletion of calpain in osteoblasts

Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.3). 06/2011; 409(2):235-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.04.134
Source: PubMed


The ubiquitously expressed Calpains 1 and 2 belong to a family of calcium-dependent intracellular cysteine proteases. Both calpains are heterodimers consisting of a large subunit and a small regulatory subunit encoded by the gene Capns1. To investigate a role for the calpain small subunit in cells of the osteoblast lineage in vivo, we previously generated osteoblast-specific Capns1 knockout mice and characterized their bone phenotype. In this study, we further examined effects of low calcium and high fat diets on their bone, fat, and glucose homeostasis. Osteoblast-specific Capns1 knockout mice showed significantly reduced serum levels of total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin, and this was presumably due to their impaired bone formation and bone resorption. The reduced bone resorptive function of the mutant mice was also significant under a low calcium diet. Thus, these results suggest that reduced uncarboxylated osteocalcin levels of mutant mice were, at least in part, due to their osteoporotic bone with impaired bone resorptive function. Interestingly, unlike osteocalcin knockout mice, mutant mice on a normal chow diet were leaner than control littermates; this was likely due to their reduced food intake and overall lower energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we next provided mutant mice with a high fat diet and further examined an effect of their reduced uncarboxylated osteocalcin levels on body composition and glucose metabolism. The average mean body weight of mutant mice became indistinguishable with that of controls after 2 weeks on a high fat diet, and continued to show an upward trend, at least, up to 6weeks. Moreover, mutant mice on a high fat diet exhibited a significant increase in serum levels of leptin and resistin, adipocyte-specific adipokines, and developed impaired glucose tolerance. Collectively, mice with osteoporosis and reduced bone resorptive function showed reduced serum uncarboxylated osteocalcin levels and were susceptible to increase body adiposity and develop impaired glucose tolerance under a high fat diet.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTH1R) belongs to the class II G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The calpain small subunit encoded by the gene Capns1 is the second protein and the first enzyme identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular C-terminal tail of the rat PTH1R. The calpain regulatory small subunit forms a heterodimer with the calpain large catalytic subunit and modulates various cellular functions as a cysteine protease. To investigate a physiological role of the calpain small subunit in cells of the osteoblast lineage, we generated osteoblast-specific Capns1 knockout mouse models and characterized their bone phenotype. Molecular mechanisms by which calpain modulates cell proliferation of the osteoblast lineage were further examined in vitro. Moreover, we utilized the mutant mice as a disease model of osteoporosis accompanied with impaired bone resorptive function and suggested a possible clinical translation of our basic research finding.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 07/2012; 66(1). DOI:10.1007/s12013-012-9393-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor