A 115-bp MethyLight assay for detection of p16 (CDKN2A) methylation as a diagnostic biomarker in human tissues.
ABSTRACT p16 Methylation is a potential biomarker for prediction of malignant transformation of epithelial dysplasia. A probe-based, quantitative, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) called MethyLight may become an eligible method for detecting this marker clinically. We studied oral mucosa biopsies with epithelial dysplasia from 78 patients enrolled in a published 4-years' followup cohort, in which cancer risk for patients with p16 methylation-positive dysplasia was significantly higher than those without p16 methylation (by 150-bp MSP and bisulfite sequencing; +133 ~ +283, transcription starting site, +1). The p16 methylation status in samples (N = 102) containing sufficient DNA was analyzed by the 70-bp classic (+238 ~ +307) and 115-bp novel (+157 ~ +272) MethyLight assays, respectively.
p16 Methylation was detectable in 75 samples using the classic MethyLight assay. The methylated-p16 positive rate and proportion of methylated-p16 by the MethyLight in MSP-positive samples were higher than those in MSP-negative samples (positive rate: 37/44 vs. 38/58, P=0.035, two-sided; proportion [median]: 0.78 vs. 0.02, P <0.007). Using the published results of MSP as a golden standard, we found sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for this MethyLight assay to be 70.5%, 84.5%, and 55.0%, respectively. Because amplicon of the classic MethyLight procedure only partially overlapped with the MSP amplicon, we further designed a 115-bp novel MethyLight assay in which the amplicon on the sense-strand fully overlapped with the MSP amplicon on the antisense-strand. Using the 115-bp MethyLight assay, we observed methylated-p16 in 26 of 44 MSP-positive samples and 2 of 58 MSP-negative ones (P = 0.000). These results were confirmed with clone sequencing. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using the 115-bp MethyLight assay were 59.1%, 98.3%, and 57.4%, respectively. Significant differences in the oral cancer rate were observed during the followup between patients (≥60 years) with and without methylated-p16 as detected by the 115-bp MethyLight assay (6/8 vs. 6/22, P = 0.034, two-sided).
The 115-bp MethyLight assay is a useful and practical assay with very high specificity for the detection of p16 methylation clinically.
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ABSTRACT: Alterations of DNA methylation and transcription of microRNAs (miRNAs) are very stable phenomena in tissues and body fluids and suitable for sensitive detection. These advantages enable us to translate some important discoveries on epigenetic oncology into biomarkers for control of cancer. A few promising epigenetic biomarkers are emerging. Clinical trials using methylated CpG islands of p16, Septin9, and MGMT as biomarkers are carried out for predication of cancer development, diagnosis, and chemosensitivity. Circulating miRNAs are promising biomarkers, too. Breakthroughs in the past decade imply that epigenetic biomarkers may be useful in reducing the burden of cancer.Advances in genetics 01/2010; 71:125-76. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CpG island methylation plays an important role in normal cellular processes, such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation, as well as in abnormal processes, such as neoplasia. However, the dynamics of de novo CpG island methylation, during which a CpG island is converted from an unmethylated, active state to a densely methylated, inactive state, are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the development of de novo CpG island methylation is a progressive process, in which a subset of CpG sites are initially methylated with a subsequent increase in methylation density, or a single event, in which the initial methylation event encompasses the entire CpG island. The tumor suppressor gene p16/CDKN2a/INK4a (p16) is inactivated by CpG island methylation during neoplastic progression in a variety of human cancers. We investigated the development of methylation in the p16 CpG island in primary human mammary epithelial cell strains during escape from mortality stage 0 (M(0)) growth arrest. The methylation status of 47 CpG sites in the p16 CpG island on individual DNA molecules was determined by sequencing PCR clones of bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. The p16 CpG island was initially methylated at a subset of sites in three discrete regions in association with p16 transcriptional repression and escape from M(0) growth arrest. With continued passage, methylation gradually increased in density and methylation expanded to sites in adjacent regions. Thus, de novo methylation in the p16 CpG island is a progressive process that is neither site specific nor completely random but instead is region specific. Our results suggest that early detection of methylation in the CpG island of the p16 gene will require methylation analysis of the three regions and that the identification of region-specific methylation patterns in other genes may be essential for an accurate assessment of methylation-mediated transcriptional silencing.Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/1999; 19(8):5642-51. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inactivation of p16 by methylation of CpG islands is a frequent early event in gastric carcinogenesis. The positive relationship between p16 methylation and the clinical characteristics of gastric carcinomas (GC) has not been reported to date. In the present study, a DHPLC assay to quantify p16 methylation was established (detection limit by fluorescence detector: 1:255 (Methlyated vs Unmethylated)). The proportion of methylated p16 in the representative samples was confirmed and standardized by clone sequencing. Then, the DHPLC and two regular methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were used to detect p16 methylation in 82 paired, resected GCs and their adjacent normal tissues. Results showed that the average proportion of methylated p16 in GCs was significantly higher than that in their adjacent samples (12.90 vs 0.63%; t-test P=0.005). A much higher proportion of methylated p16 was detected in GCs with metastases (local or distant) than without metastases (14.76 vs 2.61%; t-test P=0.014). A proportional relationship was observed between clinical stages and positive rates of p16 methylation in GCs and/or adjacent tissues: 27.3, 37.5, and 58.8% (by DHPLC) for stage-I, -II, -III-IV of GCs, respectively (two-sided Fisher's exact test P=0.016). To confirm the data obtained by DHPLC, two MSP primer sets (p16-M and p16-M2) were also used to analyze p16 methylation in the same set of samples simultaneously. Data of MSP assay using the primer set p16-M2, but not p16-M, correlated with that of DHPLC. These results imply that the primer set p16-M2 might be more suitable than p16-M to detect p16 methylation in gastric tissues. In conclusion, the present data indicates that p16 methylation correlates with progression of GCs significantly.Laboratory Investigation 07/2006; 86(6):591-8. · 3.96 Impact Factor