Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population
ABSTRACT We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups.
Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain). This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR).
There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years). About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1) and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5). The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6), drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0), suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7), cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1) and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1). Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007).
Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jesús Castilla, Jul 06, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Jose A. Oteo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We aimed at comparing overall and liver-related mortality rates, observed in HIV positive subjects followed-up in the Cohorts of Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research stratified by HCV co-infection status, with the expected mortality of the general population of same age and sex in Spain, for the period 1997 - 2008. We estimated standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and excess mortality, comparing death rates from our cohort (globally and by HCV co-infection) with death rates from the general population standardized by sex in 5year-age bands. Overall, 5914 HIV positive subjects were included, 37.3% of which were co-infected with HCV; 231 deaths occurred, 10.4% of which were liver-related. SMR for all causes mortality for the HIV positive subjects was 5.6 (CI 95% 4.9-6.4), 2.4 (1.9-3.1) for HCV negative subjects and 11.5 (9.9-13.4) for HCV positive ones. Having HCV co-infection and AIDS yielded an SMR of 20.8 (16.5-26.1) and having AIDS and being HCV negative had an SMR of 4.8 (3.5-6.7). SMR for liver-related mortality was 1.8 (0.6-5.7) for HCV negative subjects vs. 22.4 (14.6-34.3) for HCV positive ones. Overall, both mortality rates as SMR and excess mortality rates were higher for injecting drug users (IDUs) than men having sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals, patients with AIDS, with and without cART and for subjects included between 1997 and 2003. There was an excess of all-cause and liver-related mortality in our cohorts compared with the general population. Furthermore, HCV co-infection in HIV positive patients increased the risk of death for both all causes and liver-related causes.Journal of Hepatology 06/2012; 57(4):743-51. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.06.010 · 10.40 Impact Factor
- 01/2011; DOI:10.4172/2161-0495.S1-004
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV care providers may be optimally positioned to promote smoking behaviour change in their patients, among whom smoking is both highly prevalent and uniquely harmful. Yet research on this front is scant, particularly in the developing country context. Hence, this study describes smoking behaviour among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and assesses the association between experience of physician-delivered smoking status assessment and readiness to quit among HIV-positive smokers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Data from 321 adult PLWHA were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for correlates of current smoking and, among current smokers, of motivational readiness to quit based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behaviour change. Overall, 47% of participants were current smokers, with significantly higher rates among men (72%), ever- injecting drug users (IDUs), recent (30-day) alcohol consumers, those without any formal education, and those with higher HIV symptom burdens. Of 151 current smokers, 34% were thinking seriously of quitting within the next 6 months (contemplation or preparation stage of behaviour change). Adjusting for potential confounders, experience of physician-delivered smoking status assessment during any visit to a hospital or clinic in the past 12 months was associated with greater readiness to quit smoking (AOR = 3.34; 95% CI = 1.05,10.61). Roughly one-third of HIV-positive smokers residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, are at the contemplation or preparation stage of smoking behaviour change, with rates significantly higher among those whose physicians have asked about their smoking status during any clinical interaction over the past year. Systematic screening for smoking by physicians during routine HIV care may help to reduce the heavy burden of smoking and smoking-related morbidity and mortality within HIV-positive populations in Nepal and similar settings.BMC Public Health 08/2011; 11:677. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-677 · 2.32 Impact Factor