We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups.
Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain). This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR).
There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years). About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1) and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5). The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6), drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0), suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7), cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1) and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1). Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007).
Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.
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"As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved, reliable assignment of cause of death for people who have lived with the infection has been a persistent difficulty. Although there is no doubt about increased mortality risks associated with HIV infection (1), in settings where people frequently die outside the scope of effective medical services, or where the disease continues to carry some stigma, there may be inadequate information or unwillingness to document HIV/AIDS as a cause of death (2). The situation is further complicated by the interactions between HIV infection and other diseases, whereby clear manifestations of AIDS may not be major features of final illnesses among HIV-positive people, particularly among those receiving treatment (3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable population-based data on HIV infection and AIDS mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are scanty, even though that is the region where most of the world's AIDS deaths occur. There is therefore a great need for reliable and valid public health tools for assessing AIDS mortality.
The aim of this article is to validate the InterVA-4 verbal autopsy (VA) interpretative model within African populations where HIV sero-status is recorded on a prospective basis, and examine the distribution of cause-specific mortality among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people.
Data from six sites of the Alpha Network, including HIV sero-status and VA interviews, were pooled. VA data according to the 2012 WHO format were extracted, and processed using the InterVA-4 model into likely causes of death. The model was blinded to the sero-status data. Cases with known pre-mortem HIV infection status were used to determine the specificity with which InterVA-4 could attribute HIV/AIDS as a cause of death. Cause-specific mortality fractions by HIV infection status were calculated, and a person-time model was built to analyse adjusted cause-specific mortality rate ratios.
The InterVA-4 model identified HIV/AIDS-related deaths with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI 88.7-91.4%). Overall sensitivity could not be calculated, because HIV-positive people die from a range of causes. In a person-time model including 1,739 deaths in 1,161,688 HIV-negative person-years observed and 2,890 deaths in 75,110 HIV-positive person-years observed, the mortality ratio HIV-positive:negative was 29.0 (95% CI 27.1-31.0), after adjustment for age, sex, and study site. Cause-specific HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios for acute respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS-related deaths, meningitis, tuberculosis, and malnutrition were higher than the all-cause ratio; all causes had HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios significantly higher than unity.
These results were generally consistent with relatively small post-mortem and hospital-based diagnosis studies in the literature. The high specificity in cause of death attribution achieved in relation to HIV status, and large differences between specific causes by HIV status, show that InterVA-4 is an effective and valid tool for assessing HIV-related mortality.
Global Health Action 10/2013; 6:22448. DOI:10.3402/gha.v6i0.22448 · 1.93 Impact Factor
"The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to dramatic improvement in survival for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), turning a fatal disease into a manageable chronic condition (1-3). In HIV infected patients without other risk factors on a successful HAART, the probability of survival is approaching closer to that in the general population of a similar age (4-9). Along with increased survival, the causes of death among HIV-infected patients also have gradually changed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a decrease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality has been documented in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, there are no published data comparing specific causes of death between pre-HAART and HAART era in Korea. Mortality and cause of death were analyzed in three treatment periods; pre-HAART (1990-1997), early-HAART (1998-2001), and late-HAART period (2002-2011). The patients were retrospectively classified according to the treatment period in which they were recruited. Although mortality rate per 100 person-year declined from 8.7 in pre-HAART to 4.9 in late-HAART period, the proportion of deaths within 3 months of initial visit to study hospital significantly increased from 15.9% in pre-HAART to 55.1% in late-HAART period (P < 0.001). Overall, 59% of deaths were attributable to AIDS-related conditions, and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) was the most common cause of death (20.3%). The proportion of PCP as cause of death significantly increased from 8.7% in pre-HAART to 31.8% in late-HAART period (P < 0.001). Despite of significant improvement of survival, there was still a high risk of early death in patients presenting in HAART era, mainly due to late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and late presentation to care.
Journal of Korean medical science 01/2013; 28(1):67-73. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.1.67 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"In interpreting these findings, the composition of the cohort, the background HCV prevalence and the mortality rates of the general population have to be taken into account. Lower SMRs have been reported in large international cohorts made up of heterogeneous populations, whereas higher SMRs are derived from smaller cohorts with larger proportions of injecting drug users  . Regarding excess mortality, our rate of 1.0 per 100 p-y, is slightly higher than the 0.6 per 100 py for 2004-2006 reported by the CASCADE Collaboration ; overall HCV prevalence in that study was lower than ours, and it was composed exclusively of seroconverters with longer periods of disease-free follow-up. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed at comparing overall and liver-related mortality rates, observed in HIV positive subjects followed-up in the Cohorts of Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research stratified by HCV co-infection status, with the expected mortality of the general population of same age and sex in Spain, for the period 1997 - 2008.
We estimated standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and excess mortality, comparing death rates from our cohort (globally and by HCV co-infection) with death rates from the general population standardized by sex in 5year-age bands.
Overall, 5914 HIV positive subjects were included, 37.3% of which were co-infected with HCV; 231 deaths occurred, 10.4% of which were liver-related. SMR for all causes mortality for the HIV positive subjects was 5.6 (CI 95% 4.9-6.4), 2.4 (1.9-3.1) for HCV negative subjects and 11.5 (9.9-13.4) for HCV positive ones. Having HCV co-infection and AIDS yielded an SMR of 20.8 (16.5-26.1) and having AIDS and being HCV negative had an SMR of 4.8 (3.5-6.7). SMR for liver-related mortality was 1.8 (0.6-5.7) for HCV negative subjects vs. 22.4 (14.6-34.3) for HCV positive ones. Overall, both mortality rates as SMR and excess mortality rates were higher for injecting drug users (IDUs) than men having sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals, patients with AIDS, with and without cART and for subjects included between 1997 and 2003.
There was an excess of all-cause and liver-related mortality in our cohorts compared with the general population. Furthermore, HCV co-infection in HIV positive patients increased the risk of death for both all causes and liver-related causes.
Journal of Hepatology 06/2012; 57(4):743-51. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.06.010 · 11.34 Impact Factor