Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is one of key components of the translation initiation system in living cells. In bacteria IF2 is a multidomain monomeric protein, while in eukaryotic and archaean cells e/aIF2 is heterotrimer (αβγ). Data, including our own, on eukaryotic type translation initiation factor 2 (e/aIF2) structure and functioning are presented. There are also new data on initiation factors eIF5 and eIF2B that directly interact with eIF2 and control its participation in nucleotide exchange.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterotrimeric translation initiation factor (IF) a/eIF2 (archaeal/eukaryotic IF 2) is present in both Eukarya and Archaea. Despite strong structural similarity between a/eIF2 orthologs from the two domains of life, their functional relationship is obscure. Here, we show that aIF2 from Sulfolobus solfataricus can substitute for its mammalian counterpart in the reconstitution of eukaryotic 48S initiation complexes from purified components. aIF2 is able to correctly place the initiator Met-tRNA(i) into the P-site of the 40S ribosomal subunit and accompany the entire set of eukaryotic translation IFs in the process of cap-dependent scanning and AUG codon selection. However, it seems to be unable to participate in the following step of ribosomal subunit joining. In accordance with this, aIF2 inhibits rather than stimulates protein synthesis in mammalian cell-free system. The ability of recombinant aIF2 protein to direct ribosomal scanning suggests that some archaeal mRNAs may utilize this mechanism during translation initiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 delivers Met-tRNAiMet to the ribosomal small subunit in GTP-bound form associated with eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3 and eIF5, and dissociates together with eIF5 as eIF5-eIF2-GDP complex from the ribosomal small subunit after formation of start codon-anticodon base pairing between Met-tRNAiMet and mRNA. The inactive form eIF2-GDP is then exchanged for the active form eIF2-GTP by eIF2B for further initiation cycle. Previous studies showed that the C-terminal domains of eIF5 (eIF5-CTD) and eIF2Bε (eIF2Bε-CTD) have a common eIF2β-binding site for interacting with an N-terminal region of eIF2β (eIF2β-NTD). Here we have reconstructed the complexes of (eIF5-CTD)-(eIF2β-NTD) and (eIF2Bε-CTD)-(eIF2β-NTD) in vitro, and investigated binding mechanism by circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering in solution. The results showed the conformation of eIF2β-NTD was changed when bound to partner proteins, whereas the structures of eIF5-CTD and eIF2Bε-CTD were similar in both isolated and complex states. We propose that eIF2β-NTD works as an intrinsically disordered domain which is disorder in the isolated state, but folds into a definite structure when bound to its partner proteins. Such flexibility of eIF2β-NTD is expected to be responsible for its binding capability.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 423(3):515-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.05.155 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein-3 (AIMP3) stabilizes and protects mammalian methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit gamma (eIF2γ), factors involved in the formation and the delivery of Met-tRNA (i) (Met) respectively, through the binding interactions. Due to the protections that MRS and eIF2γ are provided from the interactions with AIMP3, cellular levels of MRS and eIF2γ may be able to be maintained high enough for their canonical and/or non-canonical functions.
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