We report on an infant with tetrasomy of 5q35.2-5q35.3, an interstitial triplication on one chromosome and normal complement on the other. The patient has some features of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome including intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), almond-shaped eyes, epicanthal folds, and downturned mouth with thin vermillion of the upper lip. In addition, left ventricular noncompaction and absent thumbs were identified, which have never been described in Hunter-McAlpine syndrome. This chromosome abnormality is distinct from those previously reported. Within this region of tetrasomy is MSX2, a highly conserved homeobox containing gene. Increased copies of MSX2 have been previously associated with craniosynostosis. Our patient's only skeletal defect is absent thumbs, also potentially related to increased dosage of MSX2 which is important for limb formation. In addition, MSX2 is expressed in the developing heart and overexpression of this gene may disrupt the co-regulation of other cardiac genes in this region, namely CSX1.
"hypothyroidism) or even unique findings such as bilateral radial agenesis with absent thumbs, bilateral ulnar hypoplasia, abnormal biliary vesicle, and unilateral choroidal and retinal coloboma. Interestingly, absent thumbs were reported so far only in a single patient with an atypical copy number variation (CNV) on 5q, which was the interstitial triplication of the distal 5q segment encompassing MSX2 (6.56 Mb, coordinates according to HG18: 173897858–180456069). Since absent thumbs were never noted in cases with a distal 5q duplication, the authors hypothesized that the relatively severe limb malformation was due to the increased dosage of 5q copies
. Although caused solely by a pure duplication, the skeletal phenotype in our patient was more severe and involved bilateral radial aplasia with completely absent Ist digital rays (thumbs and Ist metacarpals), and ulnar hypoplasia with bowing. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A partial duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 5 (5q35-- > qter) is known to be associated with a distinct phenotype referred to as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome. Clinical spectrum of this disorder mainly consists of mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphism featuring flat facies, micrognathia, large, low-set dysplastic ears, hypertelorism, almond-shaped, down-slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, small nose, long philtrum, small mouth, and thin upper lip. Less frequent remarkable findings include craniosynostosis, heart defect, hypoplastic phalanges, preaxial polydactyly, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. In most patients with a partial duplication of 5q the aberration occurred due to an inherited unbalanced translocation, therefore the phenotype was not reflective of pure trisomy 5q.
We report on a 9.5-year-old boy with some feature of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome including short stature, complex heart defect (dextrocardia, dextroversion, PFO), bilateral cryptorchidism, hypothyroidism, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Additionally, bilateral radial agenesis with complete absence of Ist digital rays, ulnar hypoplasia with bowing, choroidal and retinal coloboma, abnormal biliary vesicle were identified, which have never been noted in 5q trisomy patients. Karyotype analysis, sequencing and MLPA for TBX5 and SALL4 genes were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a duplication on 5q35.2-5q35.3, resulting from a de novo chromosomal rearrangement. Our proband carried the smallest of all previously reported pure distal 5q trisomies encompassing terminal 5.4-5.6 Mb and presented with the most severe limb malformation attributed to the increased number of distal 5q copies.
We postulate that a terminal distal trisomy of 5q35.2-5q35.3, which maps 1.1 Mb telomeric to the MSX2 gene is causative for both radial agenesis and complex heart defect in our proband. A potential candidate gene causative for limb malformation in our proband could be FGFR4, which maps relatively in the closest position to the chromosomal breakage site (about 1.3 Mb) from all known 5q duplications. Since the limb malformation as well as the underlying genetic defect are distinct from other 5q trisomy patient we propose that a position effect resulting in altered long-range regulation of the FGFR4 (alternatively MSX2) may be responsible for the limb malformation in our proband.
BMC Medical Genetics 01/2013; 14(1):13. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-14-13 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cobalamin C disease (cblC), a form of combined methylmalonic acidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene, may be the most common inborn error of intracellular cobalamin metabolism. The clinical manifestations of cblC disease are diverse and range from intrauterine growth retardation to adult onset neurological disease. The occurrence of structural heart defects appears to be increased in cblC patients and may be related to the function of the MMACHC enzyme during cardiac embryogenesis, a concept supported by the observation that Mmachc is expressed in the bulbis cordis of the developing mouse heart. Here we report an infant who presented with hydrops fetalis, ventricular dysfunction, and echocardiographic evidence of LVNC, a rare congenital cardiomyopathy. Metabolic evaluations, complementation studies, and mutation analysis confirmed the diagnosis of cblC disease. These findings highlight an intrauterine cardiac phenotype that can be displayed in cblC disease in association with nonimmune hydrops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microduplications of the Sotos syndrome region containing NSD1 on 5q35 have recently been proposed to cause a syndrome of microcephaly, short stature and developmental delay. To further characterize this emerging syndrome, we report the clinical details of 12 individuals from 8 families found to have interstitial duplications involving NSD1, ranging in size from 370 kb to 3.7 Mb. All individuals are microcephalic, and height and childhood weight range from below average to severely restricted. Mild-to-moderate learning disabilities and/or developmental delay are present in all individuals, including carrier family members of probands; dysmorphic features and digital anomalies are present in a majority. Craniosynostosis is present in the individual with the largest duplication, though the duplication does not include MSX2, mutations of which can cause craniosynostosis, on 5q35.2. A comparison of the smallest duplication in our cohort that includes the entire NSD1 gene to the individual with the largest duplication that only partially overlaps NSD1 suggests that whole-gene duplication of NSD1 in and of itself may be sufficient to cause the abnormal growth parameters seen in these patients. NSD1 duplications may therefore be added to a growing list of copy number variations for which deletion and duplication of specific genes have contrasting effects on body development.
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