Epigenetic inactivation of the SFRP1 gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT The secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene, as a Wnt signaling modulator, is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the role of SFRP1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is not clear. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic inactivation of the SFRP1 gene in ESCC.
Nine ESCC cell lines, two immortalized human esophageal epithelial cell lines, twenty ESCC tissues, and paired adjacent nontumor tissues were analyzed in the study. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bisulfite sequencing, reverse-transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were used to detect SFRP1 promoter methylation, expression of the SFRP1 gene, and histone modification in the SFRP1 promoter region.
The SFRP1 promoter was found to be highly methylated in 95% (19/20) of the ESCC tissues and in nine ESCC cell lines, compared with 65% (13/20) of the paired nontumor tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that complete methylation of the SFRP1 gene promoter was correlated with its greatly reduced expression level. After individual treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and trichostatin A (TSA), the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of the SFRP1 gene was not obviously rescued in the EC9706 cell line. Combined incubation with DAC and TSA can, however, substantially increase the SFRP1 mRNA expression level in the EC9706 cell line. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that acetylated histone H3 and H4 were found in the SFRP1 promoter region.
Promoter hypermethylation of SFRP1 is a frequent event in ESCC. Promoter methylation and histone acetylation may cooperatively regulate expression of the SFRP1 gene.
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic drugs are in use in clinical trials of various human cancers and are potent at reactivating genes silenced by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. We report here the analysis of a set of normal fibroblast and cancer cell lines after combination treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA). Low doses of the drug combination caused cell cycle arrest, whereas high doses induced apoptosis in T24 bladder carcinoma cells. Both p16 (CDKN2A/INK4) and p21 (CIP1/SDI1/WAF1) expression were induced to similar levels in normal and cancer cells in a dose-dependent fashion after combination treatments. We detected a distinct increase of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 9/14 near the transcription start sites, in both LD419 normal fibroblasts and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, whereas the acetylation changes in the p21 locus were less apparent. Interestingly, the levels of trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9, which usually marks inactive chromatin regions and was associated with the p16 promoter in silenced T24 cells, did not change after drug treatments. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the remethylation of the p16 promoter CpG island in T24 cells after 5-aza-CdR treatment cannot be halted by subsequent continuous PBA treatment. The p16 gene is resilenced with kinetics similar to 5-aza-CdR only-treated cells, which is also marked by a localized loss of histone acetylation at the transcription start site. Altogether, our data provide new insights into the mechanism of epigenetic drugs and have important implications for epigenetic therapy.Cancer Research 02/2007; 67(1):346-53. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protocadherins constitute the largest subgroup in the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. Their major functions are poorly understood, although some are implicated in nervous system development. As tumor-specific promoter methylation is a marker for tumor suppressor genes (TSG), we searched for epigenetically inactivated TSGs using methylation-subtraction combined with pharmacologic demethylation, and identified the PCDH10 CpG island as a methylated sequence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). PCDH10 is broadly expressed in all normal adult and fetal tissues including the epithelia, though at different levels. It resides at 4q28.3--a region with hemizygous deletion detected by array-CGH in NPC cell lines; however, PCDH10 itself is not located within the deletion. In contrast, its transcriptional silencing and promoter methylation were frequently detected in multiple carcinoma cell lines in a biallelic way, including 12/12 nasopharyngeal, 13/16 esophageal, 3/4 breast, 5/5 colorectal, 3/4 cervical, 2/5 lung and 2/8 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, but not in any immortalized normal epithelial cell line. Aberrant methylation was further frequently detected in multiple primary carcinomas (82% in NPC, 42-51% for other carcinomas), but not normal tissues. The transcriptional silencing of PCDH10 could be reversed by pharmacologic demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or genetic demethylation with double knockout of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, indicating a direct epigenetic mechanism. Ectopic expression of PCDH10 strongly suppressed tumor cell growth, migration, invasion and colony formation. Although the epigenetic and genetic disruptions of several classical cadherins as TSGs have been well documented in tumors, this is the first report that a widely expressed protocadherin can also function as a TSG that is frequently inactivated epigenetically in multiple carcinomas.Oncogene 03/2006; 25(7):1070-80. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is essential for embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Activation of Hh signaling has been identified in several types of gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and liver cancers. Several recent studies suggest that Hh signaling activation can inhibit Wnt signaling. However, the molecular basis underlying this inhibition remains unclear. As transcription factors in the Hh signaling pathway, Gli molecules transform cells in culture, and their expression are associated with cancer development. Here we report that expression of a secreted frizzled-related protein-sFRP-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is dependent on Gli1 and Gli2. In human gastric cancer cells, inhibition of Hh signaling reduces the level of sFRP-1 transcript, whereas ectopic expression of Gli1 increases the level of sFRP-1 transcript. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation indicate that Gli1 is involved in transcriptional regulation of sFRP-1. In 293 cells with Gli1 expression, Wnt-1-mediated beta-catenin accumulation in the cytosol and DKK1 expression are all abrogated, which can be reversed by inhibiting sFRP-1 expression. Furthermore, while SIIA cells do not respond to Wnt-1-conditioned medium, inhibition of Hh signaling by smoothened (SMO) antagonist KAAD-cyclopamine (keto-N-aminoethylaminocaproyldihydrocinnamoylcyclopamine) leads to Wnt1-mediated beta-catenin accumulation in the cytosol. These data indicate that sFRP-1, a target gene of the hedgehog pathway, is involved in cross-talk between the hedgehog pathway and the Wnt pathway.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2006; 281(47):35598-602. · 4.65 Impact Factor