A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St., MSB 6.200, Houston, TX 77030, USA.The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.04). 05/2011; 25(8):2823-30. DOI: 10.1096/fj.11-181057
Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A(2B)R signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A(2B)R in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both P<0.05). Overall, using biochemical, cellular, genetic, and physiological approaches, our findings reveal that adenosine is a novel molecule signaling via A(2B)R activation, contributing to penile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adenosine receptor stimulation has negative inotropic and dromotropic actions, reduces cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and remodeling, and prevents cardiac arrhythmias. In the vasculature, adenosine modulates vascular tone, reduces infiltration of inflammatory cells and generation of foam cells, and may prevent the development of atherosclerosis as a result. Modulation of insulin sensitivity may further add to the anti-atherosclerotic properties of adenosine signaling. In the kidney, adenosine plays an important role in tubuloglomerular feedback and modulates tubular sodium reabsorption. The challenge is to take advantage of the beneficial actions of adenosine signaling while preventing its potential adverse effects, such as salt retention and sympathoexcitation. Drugs that interfere with adenosine formation and elimination or drugs that allosterically enhance specific adenosine receptors seem to be most promising to meet this challenge.Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2012; 5(2):199-218. DOI:10.1586/ecp.12.8 · 2.18 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During critical illness, alterations of intestinal blood supply and inflammatory activation can result in severe intestinal hypoxia (limited oxygen availability). Conditions of hypoxia lead to the activation of a transcriptional program that is under the control of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). In many instances, HIF-dependent alterations of gene expression represent endogenous adaptive responses that dampen pathologic inflammation and could be targeted to treat intestinal injury. Post-translational stabilization of the HIF transcription factor and corresponding changes in gene expression are central to the resolution of intestinal injury. Examples for such responses that we discuss in this review include hypoxia-elicited increases in extracellular adenosine production and signaling, particularly through the A2B adenosine receptor, and intestinal protection provided by hypoxia-inducible netrin-1. The present review focuses on HIF-elicited anti-inflammatory pathways that result in intestinal protection during critical illness. Many of these pathways represent novel therapeutic targets for attenuating multiorgan failure and critical illness. Whereas these therapeutic approaches are currently being investigated in cell culture models or in genetic mouse models, we are optimistic that at least some of these novel targets can be translated from bench to bedside in the near future.Current opinion in critical care 04/2012; 18(2):178-85. DOI:10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283514bd0 · 2.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The erectile status of penile tissue is governed largely by the tone of cavernosal smooth muscle cells, which is determined by the balance of vascular relaxants and constrictors. Vascular relaxants play a key role in regulating the tone of cavernosal smooth muscle and thus the initiation and maintenance of penile erection. Early studies drew attention to the potential role of adenosine signaling in this process. However, the serendipitous discovery of the effect of sildenafil on erectile physiology drew more attention toward nitric oxide (NO) as a vasodilator in the process of penile erection, and a recently discovered, unexpected erectile phenotype of adenosine deaminase-deficient mice reemphasizes the importance of adenosine as a key regulatory of erectile status. Adenosine, like NO, is a potent and short-lived vasorelaxant that functions via cyclic nucleotide second messenger signaling to promote smooth muscle relaxation. Recent studies reviewed here show that adenosine functions to relax the corpus cavernosum and promote penile erection. Excess adenosine in penile tissue contributes to the disorder called priapism, and impaired adenosine signaling is associated with erectile dysfunction. More recent research summarized in this review reveals that adenosine functions as a key endogenous vasodilator in the initiation and maintenance of normal penile erection. This new insight highlights adenosine signaling pathways operating in penile tissue as significant therapeutic targets for the treatment of erectile disorders.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2012; 32(4):845-50. DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.226803 · 6.00 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.