TLR2-dependent modulation of osteoclastogenesis by Porphyromonas gingivalis through differential induction of NFATc1 and NF-kappaB.
ABSTRACT Osteolytic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis, and periodontitis, are usually associated with bacterial infections. However, the precise mechanisms by which bacteria induce bone loss still remain unclear. Evidence exists that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling regulates both inflammation and bone metabolism and that the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK are the key regulators for bone remodeling and for the activation of osteoclasts. Here, we investigate the direct effects of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on osteoclast differentiation and show that P. gingivalis differentially modulates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation contingent on the state of differentiation of osteoclast precursors. In addition, although an optimal induction of cytokines by P. gingivalis is dependent on TLR2 and TLR4, as well as myeloid differentiation factor 88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β, P. gingivalis utilizes TLR2/ myeloid differentiation factor 88 in modulating osteoclast differentiation. P. gingivalis modulates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by differential induction of NFATc1 and c-Fos. More importantly, RANKL-mediated lineage commitment also has an impact on P. gingivalis-induced cytokine production. RANKL inhibits P. gingivalis-induced cytokine production by down-regulation of TLR/NF-κB and up-regulation of NFATc1. Our findings reveal novel aspects of the interactions between TLR and RANK signaling and provide a new model for understanding the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of bacteria-mediated bone loss.
- SourceAvailable from: Fabio Renato Manzolli LeiteImmunology Innovation. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble secreted protein and a decoy receptor, which inhibits a receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)/the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling. Recent clinical studies have shown that a high-serum-OPG level is associated with unfavorable outcome in ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether OPG is a culprit or an innocent bystander. Here we demonstrate that enhanced RANKL/RANK signaling in OPG(-/-) mice or recombinant RANKL-treated mice contributed to the reduction of infarct volume and brain edema via reduced postischemic inflammation. On the contrary, infarct volume was increased by reduced RANKL/RANK signaling in OPG(-/-) mice and WT mice treated with anti-RANKL neutralizing antibody. OPG, RANKL, and RANK mRNA were increased in the acute stage and were expressed in activated microglia and macrophages. Although enhanced RANKL/RANK signaling had no effects in glutamate, CoCl2, or H2O2-stimulated neuronal culture, enhanced RANKL/RANK signaling showed neuroprotective effects with reduced expression in inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated neuron-glia mixed culture, suggesting that RANKL/RANK signaling can attenuate inflammation through a Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in microglia. Our findings propose that increased OPG could be a causal factor of reducing RANKL/RANK signaling and increasing postischemic inflammation. Thus, the OPG/RANKL/RANK axis plays critical roles in controlling inflammation in ischemic brains.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacteria highly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The recognition of microbial factors, such as lipopolysaccharide from A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa LPS), in the oral environment is made mainly by surface receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR4 is the major LPS receptor. This interaction leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) -dependent and -independent pathways, which may involve the adaptor Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF). The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of MyD88 in alveolar bone loss induced by Aa LPS in mice. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88, TRIF or TRIF/MyD88 knockout mice received 10 injections of Aa LPS strain FDC Y4 (5 μg in 3 μl), in the palatal gingival tissue of the right first molar, every 48 h. Phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the opposite side and used as control. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after the 10th injection and the maxillae were removed for macroscopic and biochemical analyses. The injections of Aa LPS induced significant alveolar bone loss in WT mice. In the absence of MyD88 or TRIF/MyD88 no bone loss induced by Aa LPS was observed. In contrast, responses in TRIF(-/-) mice were similar to those in WT mice. Diminished bone loss in the absence of MyD88 was associated with fewer TRAP-positive cells and increased expression of osteoblast markers, RUNX2 and osteopontin. There was also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α production in MyD88(-/-) mice. There was less osteoclast differentiation of hematopoietic bone marrow cells from MyD88(-/-) mice after Aa LPS stimulation. Hence, the signaling through MyD88 is pivotal for Aa LPS-induced osteoclast formation and alveolar bone loss.Molecular oral microbiology. 07/2013;