Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Uptake and Location of Vaccination for 2009-H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza
ABSTRACT To learn more about racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination during the 2009-H1N1 pandemic, we examined nationally representative survey data of US adults. We found disparities in 2009-H1N1 vaccine uptake between Blacks and Whites (13.8% vs 20.4%); Whites and Hispanics had similar 2009-H1N1 vaccination rates. Physician offices were the dominant location for 2009-H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations, especially among minorities. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of how communication methods and vaccine distribution strategies affect vaccine uptake within minority communities.
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- "For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within two days of symptoms). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses; However, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs  . The virus isolated in the 2009 outbreak has been found resistant to Amantadine and Rimantadine  IX. "
ABSTRACT: Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 ''Spanish flu'' human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Swine Influenza is a respiratory disease of pig caused by Type A influenza viruses. Influenza A causes moderate to severe illness and affects all age groups. The virus infects humans and other animals. Influenza A viruses are perpetuated in nature by wild birds, predominantly waterfowl. The WHO declared the H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015 the instances of Swine Flu substantially increased to five year highs with over 10000 cases reported and 774 deaths in India. The CDC recommends real time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Prevention of swine influenza has three components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. The CDC recommends the use of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or Zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.International Journal of Technical Research and Applications 05/2015; 3(3):1-5.
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ABSTRACT: This review examines four events related to vaccination that have occurred in recent years: (a) the ongoing recovery from the MMR/Autism scare in the UK, (b) the upgrading of the Varicella vaccine to a universal childhood vaccine, (c) the major effort of authorities to provide a vaccine for A/H1N1 influenza and its rejection by the public, and, d) the current attempts to change the HPV vaccine target from girls only to boys and girls. All of these changes have been met with shifts in the public acceptance of the relevant vaccine. These shifts are characterized not only by the number of people willing to be vaccinated, but also by the attitudes and the motives related to acceptance. Examination of the interrelationship between changes in vaccination realities, and changes in acceptance patterns suggests that today, the public has a better understanding of vaccination, is acting in a more reflexive way, and is capable of changing attitudes and behavior. All together, changes in vaccination enhance debates and dialogues about vaccines, and lead to higher awareness and more conscious acceptance.Human vaccines 12/2011; 7(12):1261-70. DOI:10.4161/hv.7.12.17980 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnant women were identified at greater risk and given priority for 2009 H1N1 vaccination during the 2009 through 2010 H1N1 pandemic. We identified factors associated with acceptance or refusal of 2009 H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy. We conducted an in-person survey of postpartum women on the labor and delivery service from June 17 through Aug. 13, 2010, at 4 New York hospitals. Of 1325 survey respondents, 34.2% received 2009 H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy. A provider recommendation was most strongly associated with vaccine acceptance (odds ratio [OR], 19.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.7-31.1). Also more likely to take vaccine were women indicating the vaccine was safe for the fetus (OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 8.3-19.0) and those who previously took seasonal flu vaccination (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 5.8-10.7). Race, education, income, and age were less important in accepting vaccine. Greater emphasis on vaccine safety and provider recommendation is needed to increase the number of women vaccinated during pregnancy.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2011; 206(4):339.e1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2011.12.027 · 3.97 Impact Factor