Characterization of novel microsatellites from Drosophila transversa.
ABSTRACT We investigated a partial genomic library of Drosophila transversa for microsatellites and developed 12 markers for genetic analyses. This is the first time that microsatellite primers from the quinaria species group have been described. Four loci were cross-amplified in D. phalerata. Nine out of the 12 microsatellite markers developed are likely to be on the X chromosome.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about what determines patterns of host association of horizontally transmitted parasites over evolutionary timescales. We examine the evolution of associations between mushroom-feeding Drosophila flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae), particularly in the quinaria and testacea species groups, and their horizontally transmitted Howardula nematode parasites (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae). Howardula species were identified by molecular characterization of nematodes collected from wild-caught flies. In addition, DNA sequence data is used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of both host Drosophila (mtDNA: COI, II, III) and their Howardula parasites (rDNA: 18S, ITS1; mtDNA: COI). Host and parasite phylogenies are not congruent, with patterns of host association resulting from frequent and sometimes rapid host colonizations. Drosophila-parasitic Howardula are not monophyletic, and host switches have occurred between Drosophila and distantly related mycophagous sphaerocerid flies. There is evidence for some phylogenetic association between parasites and hosts, with some nematode clades associated with certain host lineages. Overall, these host associations are highly dynamic, and appear to be driven by a combination of repeated opportunities for host colonization due to shared breeding sites and large potential host ranges of the nematodes.Molecular Ecology 02/2003; 12(1):237-49. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Courtship song is known to vary among several groups of closely related species ofDrosophila. The present study investigates differences in song among four members of thequinaria group of fungal-breedingDrosophila which are known to coexist in Britain and the near-continent. Results show that the species can be distinguished by several song parameters including interpulse interval.D. phalerata is very different from the other three species, while there is considerable overlap betweenD. kuntzei andD. limbata in several characters.D. transversa appears to be more similar to the latter species than it is toD. phalerata. The question of mate choice and the potential for reproductive character displacement are discussed.Journal of Insect Behavior 01/1997; 10(2):237-246. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among major taxonomic groups, microsatellites exhibit considerable variation in composition and allele length, but they also show considerable conservation within many major groups. This variation may be explained by slow microsatellite evolution so that all species within a group have similar patterns of variation, or by taxon-specific mutational or selective constraints. Unfortunately, comparing microsatellites across species and studies can be problematic because of biases that may exist among different isolation and analysis protocols. We present microsatellite data from five Drosophila species in the Drosophila subgenus: D. arizonae, D. mojavensis, and D. pachea (three cactophilic species), and D. neotestacea and D. recens (two mycophagous species), all isolated at the same time using identical protocols. For each species, we compared the relative abundance of motifs, the distribution of repeat size, and the average number of repeats. Dimers were the most abundant microsatellites for each species. However, we found considerable variation in the relative abundance of motif size classes among species, even between sister taxa. Frequency differences among motifs within size classes for the three cactophilic species, but not the two mycophagous species, are consistent with other studied Drosophila. Frequency distributions of repeat number, as well as mean size, show significant differences among motif size classes but not across species. Sizes of microsatellites in these five species are consistent with D. virilis, another species in the subgenus Drosophila, but they have consistently higher means than in D. melanogaster, in the subgenus Sophophora. These results confirm that many aspects of microsatellite variation evolve quickly but also are subject to taxon-specific constraints. In addition, the nature of microsatellite evolution is dependent on temporal and taxonomic scales, and some variation is conserved across broad taxonomic levels despite relatively high rates of mutation for these loci.Molecular Biology and Evolution 08/2003; 20(7):1143-57. · 10.35 Impact Factor