Nutrition and chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at early stages of CKD. A recent protein-energy wasting nomenclature allows a simpler approach to the diagnosis and causes of malnutrition. During maintenance dialysis, optimal protein and energy intakes have been recently challenged, and there is no longer an indication to control hyperphosphatemia through diet restriction. Recent measurements of energy expenditure in dialysis patients confirm very low physical activity, which affects energy requirements. Finally, inflammation, a common state during CKD, acts on both nutrient intake and catabolism, but is not a contraindication to a nutritional intervention, as patients do respond and improve their survival as well as do noninflamed patients.
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ABSTRACT: In patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of hypoglycaemia and death. Yet, it remains uncertain whether hypoglycaemia-associated mortality is modified by CKD.BMC Endocrine Disorders 06/2014; 14(1):48. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Protein-rich foods are a major source of dietary phosphorus; therefore, helping patients to increase their dietary protein intake, while simultaneously managing their hyperphosphataemia, poses a significant challenge for renal care professionals.Objectives To examine the clinical recommendations and practice perceptions of renal care professionals providing nutrition and phosphate control advice to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods Renal care professionals from four European countries completed an online survey on the clinical management of hyperphosphataemia.ResultsThe majority of responders recommended a protein intake of less than 1.0 g/kg/day for pre-dialysis patients, 1.2 g/kg/day for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 1.1–1.2 g/kg/day for patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). The most common perception was that maintaining dietary protein intake and reducing dietary phosphorus intake are equally important for hyperphosphataemia management. For patients in the pre-dialysis stage, the majority of responders (59%) reported that their first-line management recommendation would be reduction of dietary phosphorus. For patients undergoing PD and HD, the majority of responders (53% and 59%, respectively) reported a first-line management recommendation of both reduction of dietary phosphorus and phosphate binder therapy. More renal nurses than dietitians perceived reducing dietary phosphorus to be more important than maintaining protein intake (for patients undergoing PD, 23% vs. 0%, respectively; for patients undergoing HD, 34% vs. 0%, respectively).Conclusion This renal care community followed professionally accepted guidelines for patient nutrition and management of hyperphosphataemia. There was disparity in the perceptions and recommendations between nurses and dietitians, highlighting the need to standardise management practices amongst renal care professionals.Journal of Renal Care 05/2014;