Nutrition and chronic kidney disease.

Department of Nephrology, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France.
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 7.92). 05/2011; 80(4):348-57. DOI: 10.1038/ki.2011.118
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at early stages of CKD. A recent protein-energy wasting nomenclature allows a simpler approach to the diagnosis and causes of malnutrition. During maintenance dialysis, optimal protein and energy intakes have been recently challenged, and there is no longer an indication to control hyperphosphatemia through diet restriction. Recent measurements of energy expenditure in dialysis patients confirm very low physical activity, which affects energy requirements. Finally, inflammation, a common state during CKD, acts on both nutrient intake and catabolism, but is not a contraindication to a nutritional intervention, as patients do respond and improve their survival as well as do noninflamed patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Protein intake is considered a determinant of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary urea is an objective marker of protein intake. The population-based study investigated, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the association of protein intake with GFR, indexed by estimated GFR (eGFR). Data were collected on overnight urinary urea, serum creatinine (S-cr), eGFR and other variables in 1522 men and women aged 45-64 years who participated in the Gubbio study (baseline). S-Cr, eGFR and other variables were re-assessed in 1144 of the 1425 survivors after 12-year follow-up. At baseline, mean ± SD was 84.0 ± 11.4 mL/min × 1.73 m(2) for eGFR calculated by CKD-Epi equation and 1.34 ± 0.57 g/day per kg of ideal weight for protein intake assessed by measurements of overnight urine excretion of urea nitrogen. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data indicated a positive correlation of protein intake with eGFR (R = 0.180, P < 0.001). In multi-variable regression, 1 g/day higher protein intake related to 4.7 mL/min × 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.7/5.7]. At follow-up, mean ± SD of 12-year eGFR change was -11.6 ± 9.0 mL/min × 1.73 m(2). Baseline protein intake correlated with more negative eGFR change (R = -0.251, P < 0.001). In multi-variable regression, 1 g/day higher protein intake related to -4.1 mL/min × 1.73 m(2) more negative eGFR change (95% CI = -5.1/-3.1) and to 1.78 risk for incidence of eGFR < 60 mL/min × 1.73 m(2) (95% CI = 1.15/2.78). In middle-aged adults, high protein intake is associated cross-sectionally with higher GFR but longitudinally with greater GFR decline over time.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Protein-rich foods are a major source of dietary phosphorus; therefore, helping patients to increase their dietary protein intake, while simultaneously managing their hyperphosphataemia, poses a significant challenge for renal care professionals.Objectives To examine the clinical recommendations and practice perceptions of renal care professionals providing nutrition and phosphate control advice to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods Renal care professionals from four European countries completed an online survey on the clinical management of hyperphosphataemia.ResultsThe majority of responders recommended a protein intake of less than 1.0 g/kg/day for pre-dialysis patients, 1.2 g/kg/day for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 1.1–1.2 g/kg/day for patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). The most common perception was that maintaining dietary protein intake and reducing dietary phosphorus intake are equally important for hyperphosphataemia management. For patients in the pre-dialysis stage, the majority of responders (59%) reported that their first-line management recommendation would be reduction of dietary phosphorus. For patients undergoing PD and HD, the majority of responders (53% and 59%, respectively) reported a first-line management recommendation of both reduction of dietary phosphorus and phosphate binder therapy. More renal nurses than dietitians perceived reducing dietary phosphorus to be more important than maintaining protein intake (for patients undergoing PD, 23% vs. 0%, respectively; for patients undergoing HD, 34% vs. 0%, respectively).Conclusion This renal care community followed professionally accepted guidelines for patient nutrition and management of hyperphosphataemia. There was disparity in the perceptions and recommendations between nurses and dietitians, highlighting the need to standardise management practices amongst renal care professionals.
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