The incidence of malnutrition disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears unchanged over time, whereas patient-care and dialysis techniques continue to progress. Despite some evidence for cost-effective treatments, there are numerous caveats to applying these research findings on a daily care basis. There is a sustained generation of data confirming metabolic improvement when patients control their protein intake, even at early stages of CKD. A recent protein-energy wasting nomenclature allows a simpler approach to the diagnosis and causes of malnutrition. During maintenance dialysis, optimal protein and energy intakes have been recently challenged, and there is no longer an indication to control hyperphosphatemia through diet restriction. Recent measurements of energy expenditure in dialysis patients confirm very low physical activity, which affects energy requirements. Finally, inflammation, a common state during CKD, acts on both nutrient intake and catabolism, but is not a contraindication to a nutritional intervention, as patients do respond and improve their survival as well as do noninflamed patients.
"Of note, over 20% of our patients died of cancer, a proportion similar to CVD-related deaths. Thus, multiple organ dysfunction, abnormal metabolic milieu and malnutrition, often associated with CKD and cancer [34,35], might contribute to the additive interactions between CKD and hypoglycaemia on all-cause death in our cohort. In support of these findings, we also found that while CKD predicted CVD-related deaths, hypoglycaemia predicted cancer and renal-related deaths. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of hypoglycaemia and death. Yet, it remains uncertain whether hypoglycaemia-associated mortality is modified by CKD.
Type 2 diabetic patients, with or without CKD at enrolment were observed between 1995 and 2007, and followed up till 2009 at hospital medical clinics. We used additive interaction, estimated by relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) to examine possible synergistic effects between CKD and severe hypoglycaemia (defined as hospitalisations due to hypoglycaemia in the 12 months prior to enrolment) on the risk of death.
In this cohort of 8,767 type 2 diabetic patients [median age: 58 (interquartile range: 48 to 68) years; disease duration: 5 (1 to 11) years, men: 47.0%], 1,070 (12.2%) had died during a median follow-up period of 6.66 years (3.42-10.36) with 60,379 person-years.Upon enrolment, 209 patients had severe hypoglycaemia and 194 developed severe hypoglycaemia during follow-up (15 patients had both). In multivariable analysis and using patients without severe hypoglycaemia nor CKD as the referent group (683 deaths in 7,598 patients), severe hypoglycaemia alone (61 deaths in 272 patients) or CKD alone (267 death in 781 patients) were associated with increased risk of death [Hazard ratio, HR: 1.81(95%CI: 1.38 to 2.37) and 1.63 (1.38 to 1.93) respectively]. Having both risk factors (59 deaths in 116 patients) greatly enhanced the HR of death to 3.91 (2.93 to 5.21) with significant interaction (RERI: 1.46 and AP: 0.37, both p-values < 0.05).
Severe hypoglycaemia and CKD interact to increase risk of death in type 2 diabetes patients.
"However, higher protein intake (up to 1.4 g/kg/day, based on normalized protein nitrogen appearance) has been associated with increased survival in one study, despite an associated increase in serum phosphorus . An additional consideration is that dialysis patients may be more prone to malnutrition resulting from a low-protein diet and/or lack of appetite . Indeed, one post hoc analysis carried out on data from 1,751 hemodialysis patients found that prescribed dietary phosphorus restriction was not associated with survival benefit . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, the imbalance in phosphate homeostasis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been the subject of much research. It appears that, while hyperphosphatemia may be a tangible indicator of deteriorating kidney function, lack of phosphate homeostasis may also be associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality that has become a hallmark of ESRD. The need to maintain phosphorus concentrations within a recommended range is reflected in evidence-based guidelines. However, these do not reflect serum phosphorus concentrations achieved by most patients in clinical practice. Given this discrepancy, it is important to consider ways in which dietary restriction of phosphorus intake and, in particular, use of phosphate binders in patients with ESRD can be made more effective. Poor adherence is common in patients with ESRD and has been associated with inadequate control of serum phosphorus concentrations. Studies indicate that, among other factors, major reasons for poor adherence to phosphate binder therapy include high pill burden and patients' lack of understanding of their condition and its treatment. This review examines available evidence, seeking to understand fully the reasons underlying poor adherence in patients with ESRD and consider possible strategies for improving adherence in clinical practice.
"However, further restriction of food intake, leading to malnutrition, reduces the lifespan . In addition, malnutrition is associated with inflammation in end-stage renal disease, and the so-called malnutrition–inflammation complex may also be a risk factor for cardiovascular death . Therefore, although CR without malnutrition can extend lifespan in model organisms, further studies are required to determine when such CR can benefit humans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.