Question 2. Does combined oral dexamethasone and epinephrine inhalation help infants with bronchiolitis to recover faster?

Academic Medical Center, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Archives of Disease in Childhood (Impact Factor: 3.05). 06/2011; 96(6):606-8. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-300067
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Use of both l-epinephrine and racemic epinephrine (adrenaline) has improved clinical symptoms and composite respiratory scores in acute bronchiolitis. The objective of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to assess whether there was sufficient improvement in clinical state to reduce hospital admissions. Seventy-five infants aged 1 month to 1 year with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis were treated with either 2 ml of 1:1000 nebulized adrenaline or 2 ml of nebulized normal saline administered after baseline assessment and 30 min later. Clinical respiratory parameters were recorded at 15-min intervals for a period of 2 h following the baseline assessment. Admission to hospital was the primary end-point and changes in respiratory parameters were secondary end-points. Fifty percent (19/38) of infants treated with adrenaline were discharged home compared with 38 percent (14/37) of those treated with saline. This 12 percent reduction in rate of admission is not statistically significant (95% CI of difference: -10% to 35%). There was no difference between treated and placebo groups in respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate or a composite respiratory distress score at 30, 60 or 120 min post-treatment. In this study, nebulized epinephrine did not confer a significant advantage over nebulized saline in the emergency room treatment of acute bronchiolitis.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 05/2003; 14(2):134-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controversy exists surrounding the use of bronchodilators for bronchiolitis. Epinephrine hydrochloride is being used with increasing frequency in this group; however, its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. To systematically review randomized controlled trials comparing inhaled or systemic epinephrine vs placebo or other bronchodilators. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, primary authors, and reference lists. Studies were included if they (1) were randomized, controlled trials; (2) involved children 2 years or younger with bronchiolitis; and (3) presented quantitative outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. We included 14 studies (7 inpatient, 6 outpatient, and 1 patient status unknown). Thirteen of forty-five comparisons were significant. Among outpatients, results favored epinephrine compared with placebo for clinical score at 60 minutes (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.56 to -0.07), oxygen saturation at 30 minutes (weighted mean difference [WMD], 2.79; 95% CI, 1.50-4.08), respiratory rate at 30 minutes (WMD, -4.54; 95% CI, -8.89 to -0.19), and improvement (odds ratio, 25.06; 95% CI, 4.95-126.91); among inpatients, for clinical score at 60 minutes (SMD, -0.52; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.03). Among outpatients, results favored epinephrine compared with albuterol sulfate (salbutamol) for oxygen saturation at 60 minutes (WMD, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.38-3.44), heart rate at 90 minutes (WMD, -14.00; 95% CI, -22.95 to -5.05), respiratory rate at 60 minutes (WMD, -7.76; 95% CI, -11.35 to -4.17), and improvement (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.93-10.53); among inpatients, respiratory rate at 30 minutes (WMD, -5.12; 95% CI, -6.83 to -3.41). Epinephrine may be favorable compared with placebo and albuterol for short-term benefits among outpatients. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of epinephrine among inpatients. Large, multicentered trials are required before routine use among outpatients can be strongly recommended.
    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 11/2003; 157(10):957-64. · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies have explored the benefit of using nebulized epinephrine or corticosteroids alone to treat infants with bronchiolitis, the effectiveness of combining these medications is not well established. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 800 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) with bronchiolitis who were seen in the pediatric emergency department were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. One group received two treatments of nebulized epinephrine (3 ml of epinephrine in a 1:1000 solution per treatment) and a total of six oral doses of dexamethasone (1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight in the emergency department and 0.6 mg per kilogram for an additional 5 days) (the epinephrine-dexamethasone group), the second group received nebulized epinephrine and oral placebo (the epinephrine group), the third received nebulized placebo and oral dexamethasone (the dexamethasone group), and the fourth received nebulized placebo and oral placebo (the placebo group). The primary outcome was hospital admission within 7 days after the day of enrollment (the initial visit to the emergency department). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the four groups. By the seventh day, 34 infants (17.1%) in the epinephrine-dexamethasone group, 47 (23.7%) in the epinephrine group, 51 (25.6%) in the dexamethasone group, and 53 (26.4%) in the placebo group had been admitted to the hospital. In the unadjusted analysis, only the infants in the epinephrine-dexamethasone group were significantly less likely than those in the placebo group to be admitted by day 7 (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.95, P=0.02). However, with adjustment for multiple comparisons, this result was rendered insignificant (P=0.07). There were no serious adverse events. Among infants with bronchiolitis treated in the emergency department, combined therapy with dexamethasone and epinephrine may significantly reduce hospital admissions. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN56745572.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2009; 360(20):2079-89. · 54.42 Impact Factor


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May 26, 2014