Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial.
ABSTRACT Objective. This study examined the efficacy of 2 computer-based training systems to teach children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to attend more effectively. Design/methods. A total of 41 children with ADHD from 2 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive 2 sessions a week at school of either neurofeedback (NF) or attention training through a standard computer format (SCF), either immediately or after a 6-month wait (waitlist control group). Parents, children, and teachers completed questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results. Primary parents in the NF condition reported significant (P < .05) change on Conners's Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) and Behavior Assessment Scales for Children (BASC) subscales; and in the SCF condition, they reported significant (P < .05) change on the CRS-R Inattention scale and ADHD index, the BASC Attention Problems Scale, and on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Conclusion. This randomized control trial provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of computer-based interventions for ADHD and supports the feasibility of offering them in a school setting.
SourceAvailable from: Alessandro ZuddasJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 03/2015; · 6.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is intended to offer a comprehensive review on current research trends in the field of cognitive science and in particular, in the sector of the meta-cognitive attention skill. The paper features the latest developments in the research of attention and the cases in which attention is distracted due to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). More specifically, the review describes the certain types of attention such as selective, sustained, divided, focused and alternating attention and the attention function processes. Mainly, it focuses on thoroughly examining the methods and processes, as well as the ICT tools for ADHD Assessment, Intervention and Attention training. Finally it states the present achievements of the scientific research, it focuses on the impact of ICT as well as the role of parents and teachers in the confrontation of attention disabilities, it summarizes the standardized tools and rating scales of attention assessment, it goes in further examination of the association of attention with other meta cognitive skills, it points out questions that rise out of this examination, parts that need more intensive investigation, and estimates the future orientation of the attention research.International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) 11/2014; 9(6):20-25. DOI:10.3991/ijet.v9i6.4001
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ABSTRACT: The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD. The authors searched Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHAL databases through May 18, 2014. Data were aggregated using random-effects models. Studies were evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Sixteen of 695 nonduplicate records were analyzed (759 children with ADHD). When all types of training were considered together, there were significant effects on total ADHD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09-0.66) and inattentive symptoms (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.14-0.80) for reports by raters most proximal to the treatment setting (i.e., typically unblinded). These figures decreased substantially when the outcomes were provided by probably blinded raters (ADHD total: SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01-0.40; inattention: SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.66). Effects on hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were not significant. There were significant effects on laboratory tests of working memory (verbal: SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.24-0.80; visual: SMD = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23-0.70) and parent ratings of executive function (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.08-0.61). Effects on academic performance were not statistically significant. There were no effects of working memory training, specifically on ADHD symptoms. Interventions targeting multiple neuropsychological deficits had large effects on ADHD symptoms rated by most proximal assessors (SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.46-1.12). Despite improving working memory performance, cognitive training had limited effects on ADHD symptoms according to assessments based on blinded measures. Approaches targeting multiple neuropsychological processes may optimize the transfer of effects from cognitive deficits to clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.