Objective. This study examined the efficacy of 2 computer-based training systems to teach children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to attend more effectively. Design/methods. A total of 41 children with ADHD from 2 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive 2 sessions a week at school of either neurofeedback (NF) or attention training through a standard computer format (SCF), either immediately or after a 6-month wait (waitlist control group). Parents, children, and teachers completed questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results. Primary parents in the NF condition reported significant (P < .05) change on Conners's Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) and Behavior Assessment Scales for Children (BASC) subscales; and in the SCF condition, they reported significant (P < .05) change on the CRS-R Inattention scale and ADHD index, the BASC Attention Problems Scale, and on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Conclusion. This randomized control trial provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of computer-based interventions for ADHD and supports the feasibility of offering them in a school setting.
"The individual engages in a series of interactive exercises that aim to improve attention, problem solving skills and working memory. Gradually, by training, the individual is able to complete the tasks in greater ease and speed and reduced impulsivity and thus achieve higher scores and move on to levels of higher difficulty . There are indications that video games may contribute to the reduction of the symptoms of ADHD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current paper presents the results of a conducted case study. During the past few years the number of children diagnosed with Learning Difficulties has drastically augmented and especially the cases of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a deficit in working memory functions. The review of the literature indicates a plethora of educational software that aim at training and enhancing the working memory. Nevertheless, in the current paper, the possibility of using for the same purpose free, online games will be explored. Another issue of interest is the potential effect of the working memory training to the core symptoms of ADHD. In order to explore the abovementioned research questions, three digital tests are employed, all of which are developed on the E-slate platform by the author, in order to check the levels of ADHD’s symptoms and to be used as diagnostic tools, both in the beginning and in the end of the case study. The tools used during the main intervention of the research are free online games for the training of working memory. The research and the data analysis focus on the following axes: a) the presence and the possible change in two of the core symptoms of ADHD, attention and impulsivity and b) a possible change in the general cognitive abilities of the individual. The case study was conducted with the participation of a thirteen year-old, female student, diagnosed with ADHD, during after-school hours. The results of the study indicate positive changes both in the levels of attention and impulsivity. Therefore, we conclude that the training of working memory through the use of free, online games has a positive impact on the characteristics of ADHD. Finally, concerning the second research question, the change in general cognitive abilities, no significant changes were noted.
"We excluded studies that would lead us to pool data to avoid including the same patients more than once. Indeed, two studies eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis (van Dongen-Boomsma et al., 2013; Steiner et al., 2014b) were continuations of pilot studies included in the meta-analysis of Sonuga-Barke et al. (2013a) (Lansbergen et al., 2011; Steiner et al., 2011). These two pilot studies were not included in the present meta-analysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We undertook a meta-analysis of published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) with semi-active control and sham-NF groups to determine whether Electroencephalogram-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) significantly improves the overall symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions for probably unblinded assessment (parent assessment) and probably blinded assessment (teacher assessment) in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Data sources: A systematic review identified independent studies that were eligible for inclusion in a random effects meta-analysis.
Data extraction: Effect sizes for ADHD symptoms were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: Five identified studies met eligibility criteria, 263 patients with ADHD were included, 146 patients were trained with EEG-NF. On parent assessment (probably unblinded assessment), the overall ADHD score (SMD = −0.49 [−0.74, −0.24]), the inattention score (SMD = −0.46 [−0.76, −0.15]) and the hyperactivity/impulsivity score (SMD = −0.34 [−0.59, −0.09]) were significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls. On teacher assessment (probably blinded assessment), only the inattention score was significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls (SMD = −0.30 [−0.58, −0.03]).
Conclusions: This meta-analysis of EEG-NF in children with ADHD highlights improvement in the inattention dimension of ADHD symptoms. Future investigations should pay greater attention to adequately blinded studies and EEG-NF protocols that carefully control the implementation and embedding of training.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:906. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00906 · 2.99 Impact Factor
"The first found a significant average increase of 9.3 IQ points (Cohen's d = 0.76) in a theta/beta experimental group, as well as significant reductions in inattentive behavior (d = 0.69; Table 1: Linden, Habib, & Radojevic, 1996). Theta/beta or SMR training was replicated in several additional RCTs (Table 1: Lévesque, Beauregard, & Mensour, 2006; Steiner, Sheldrick, Gotthelf, & Perrin, 2012). Like theta/beta, SCP training was also found to produce positive changes in ADHD symptomatology , suggesting that both methods enhance regularity mechanisms and produce similar global results in the brain (Table 1: Gevensleben et al., 2009a, 2009b; Wangler et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many psychological disorders have significant basis in neurobiological dysfunction, most treatment approaches either neglect biological aspects of the problem, or approach dysfunction through pharmacological treatment alone, which may expose individuals to negative side effects. In recent decades, neurofeedback has been promoted as an alternative approach to treating neurobiological dysfunction. Neurofeedback helps individuals gain control over subtle brain activity fluctuations through real-time rewards for pre-established target brainwave frequencies at specific cortical locations. This paper reviews the effectiveness of neurofeedback in a range of conditions, including ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, substance use, PTSD, and learning difficulties. Neurofeedback has emerged as superior or equivalent to either alternative or no treatment in many of the examined studies, suggesting it produces some effects worthy of further examination. In light of its potential to address neurobiological dysfunction directly, future research is suggested in order to refine protocols, as well as to establish effectiveness and efficacy. Potential mechanisms of neurofeedback are discussed, including global connectivity, neuroplasticity, and reinforcement of the default mode network, central executive network, and salience network.
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