Developmental immunotoxicity of di-n-octyltin dichloride (DOTC) in an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study.
ABSTRACT Developmental immunotoxicity assessment is considered ready for inclusion in developmental toxicity studies. Further evaluation of proposed and additional assays is needed to determine their utility in assessing developmental immunotoxicity. In this study, a wide range of immunological parameters was included in an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity protocol. F(0) Wistar rats were exposed to DOTC via the feed (0, 3, 10, and 30mg/kg) during pre-mating, mating, gestation and lactation and subsequently F(1) were exposed from weaning until sacrifice. Immune assessments by several immune parameters were performed at PNDs 21, 42 and 70. The T cell-dependent antibody response to Keyhole Limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was assessed following subcutaneous immunizations with KLH on PNDs 21 and 35 and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) against KLH was evaluated at PND 49. No effects were found on PND 21. While effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus were only observed in the 30mg/kg group on PND 42, effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen were found in the 30mg/kg group on both PNDs 42 and 70. The DTH response already showed an effect at 3mg/kg and was the overall critical endpoint. The results from this study support the inclusion of splenocyte subpopulation parameters in developmental toxicity studies and identified the DTH response as an important functional parameter.
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ABSTRACT: The application of alternative methods in developmental and reproductive toxicology is challenging in view of the complexity of mechanisms involved. A battery of complementary test systems may provide a better prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicity than single assays. We tested twelve compounds with varying mechanisms of toxic action in an assay battery including 24 CALUX transcriptional activation assays, mouse cardiac embryonic stem cell test, ReProGlo assay, zebrafish embryotoxicity assay, and two CYP17 and two CYP19 activity assays. The battery correctly detected 11/12 compounds tested, with one false negative occurring, which could be explained by the absence of the specific mechanism of action of this compound in the battery. Toxicokinetic modeling revealed that toxic concentrations were in the range expected from in vivo reproductive toxicity data. This study illustrates added value of combining assays that contain complementary biological processes and mechanisms, increasing predictive value of the battery over individual assays.Reproductive Toxicology 03/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor