Enhancing the potency of a whole-cell breast cancer vaccine in mice with an antibody-IL-2 immunocytokine that targets exposed phosphatidylserine
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylserine (PS), an anionic phospholipid normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, is immunosuppressive when externalized on the outside of cell membranes. Exposed PS inhibits the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs), and induces the production of multiple immunosuppressive mediators. In the present study, we determined whether blocking these effects of PS while simultaneously introducing interleukin-2 (IL-2) could improve the immunogenicity of a whole-cell cancer vaccine. An immunocytokine (2aG4-IL2) was made by genetically linking IL-2 with a PS targeting antibody, 2aG4, that can block the immunosuppressive effects of PS. The 2aG4-IL2/4T1 vaccine was generated by coating the PS exposed on irradiated 4T1 cells with 2aG4-IL2. Tumor growth, spontaneous metastasis, and survival of vaccinated mice challenged with live 4T1 tumor cells were assessed. Eighty percent of mice inoculated with 2aG4-IL2/4T1 vaccine survived free of tumor, as compared with 20% in the 2aG4/4T1 group, 20% in the C44-IL2/4T1 group, and none in the C44/4T1 control group (P=0.001 for 2aG4-IL2/4T1 versus all others groups). The incidence, number of spontaneous lung metastases was significantly lower in the 2aG4-IL2/4T1 vaccinated group than in the other groups. Splenocytes from 2aG4-IL2/4T1 vaccinated mice had significantly higher 4T1 specific cytotoxicity and ability to secrete interferon-gamma (IFNγ) than did splenocytes from mice in the other groups. These results demonstrate that a potent whole-cell vaccine can be created by coating irradiated tumor cells with 2aG4-IL2. Such vaccine could potentially be an effective treatment modality for patients with residual disease or at "high-risk" for recurrence.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women, and almost all complications are due to chemotherapy resistance. Drug-resistant cells with stem cell phenotypes are thought to cause failure in breast cancer chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a potential approach to eradicate these cells. This study evaluates the specificity of DCs for breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in vitro and in vivo. BCSCs were enriched by a verapamil-resistant screening method, and reconfirmed by ALDH expression analysis and mammosphere assay. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from allogeneic murine bone marrow. DCs were induced from bone marrow-derived monocytes with 20 ng/mL GC-MSF and 20 ng/mL IL-4. Immature DCs were primed with BCSC-or MSC-derived antigens to make two kinds of mature DCs: BCSC-DCs and MSC-DCs, respectively. In vitro ability of BCSC-DCs and MSC-DCs with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to inhibit BCSCs was tested using the xCELLigence technique. In vivo, BCSC-DCs and MSC-DCs were transfused into the peripheral blood of BCSC tumor-bearing mice. The results show that in vitro BCSC-DCs significantly inhibited BCSC proliferation at a DC:CTL ratio of 1:40, while MSC-DCs nonsignificantly decreased BCSC proliferation. In vivo, tumor sizes decreased from 18.8% to 23% in groups treated with BCSC-DCs; in contrast, tumors increased 14% in the control group (RPMI 1640) and 47% in groups treated with MSC-DCs. The results showed that DC therapy could target and be specific to BCSCs. DCs primed with MSCs could trigger tumor growth. These results also indicate that DCs may be a promising therapy for treating drug-resistant cancer cells as well as cancer stem cells.OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2015; 20158(8):323-334. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S77554 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of cytokines from the IL-2 family (also called the common γ chain cytokine family) such as Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 to activate the immune system of cancer patients is one of the most important areas of current cancer immunotherapy research. The infusion of IL-2 at low or high doses for multiple cycles in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma was the first successful immunotherapy for cancer proving that the immune system could completely eradicate tumor cells under certain conditions. The initial clinical success observed in some IL-2–treated patients encouraged further efforts focused on developing and improving the application of other IL-2 family cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21) that have unique biological effects playing important roles in the development, proliferation, and function of specific subsets of lymphocytes at different stages of differentiation with some overlapping effects with IL-2. IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, as well as mutant forms or variants of IL-2, are now also being actively pursued in the clinic with some measured early successes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of the IL-2 cytokine family focusing on IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. We discuss the similarities and differences between the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and their immunomodulatory effects on different subsets of immune cells. Current clinical application of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 either as single agents or in combination with other biological agents and the limitation and potential drawbacks of these cytokines for cancer immunotherapy are also described. Lastly, we discuss the future direction of research on these cytokines, such as the development of new cytokine mutants and variants for improving cytokine-based immunotherapy through differential binding to specific receptor subunits.Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 08/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2014.07.018 · 6.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in the carcinogenesis process and the antitumor immune responses impact the clinical outcome, thus emphasizing the concept of cancer immune surveillance. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) seem to play a crucial role, as they are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are able to stimulate naive T lymphocytes and to generate memory T lymphocytes. Immunotherapy with DC-based vaccines is a very attractive approach to treat cancer, offering the potential for high tumor-specific cytotoxicity. Although breast cancer (BC) is traditionally considered a poorly immunogenic tumor, increasing numbers of both preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that vaccination with DCs is capable of inducing an antitumor-specific response, while being well tolerated and safe. However, clinical objective responses are still disappointing and many reasons may explain the difficulty of developing effective DC-based therapies for BC. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of DCs, and the major clinical indications for DC-based immunotherapy in BC with related drawbacks.Immunotherapy 03/2014; 6(3):349-60. DOI:10.2217/imt.13.169 · 2.44 Impact Factor