Two novel endoscopic esophageal lengthening and reconstruction techniques
ABSTRACT Esophageal reconstruction presents a significant clinical challenge in patients ranging from neonates with long-gap esophageal atresia to adults after esophageal resection. Both gastric and colonic replacement conduits carry significant morbidity. As emerging organ-sparring techniques become established for early stage esophageal tumors, less morbid reconstruction techniques are warranted. We present two novel endoscopic approaches for esophageal lengthening and reconstruction in a porcine model.
Two models of esophageal defects were created in pigs (30-35 kg) under general anesthesia and subsequently reconstructed with the novel techniques. The first model was a segmental defect of the esophagus created by thoracoscopically transecting the esophagus above the gastroesophageal (GE) junction. The first reconstruction technique involved bilateral submucosal endoscopic lengthening myotomies (BSELM) with a magnetic compression anastomosis (MAGNAMOSIS™). The second model was a wedge defect in the anterior esophagus created above the GE junction through a laparotomy. The second reconstruction technique involved an inverted mucosal-submucosal sleeve transposition graft (IMSTG) that crossed the esophageal gap and was secured in place with a self-expandable covered esophageal stent.
Both techniques were feasible in the pig model. The BSELM approach lengthened the esophagus 1 cm for every 2 cm length of myotomy. The myotomy targeted only the inner circular fibers of the esophagus, with preservation of the longitudinal layer to protect against long-term dilation and pouching. The IMSTG approach generated a vascularized mucosal graft almost as long as the esophagus itself.
Emerging endoscopic capabilities are enabling complex endoluminal esophageal procedures. BSELM and IMSTG are two novel and technically feasible approaches to esophageal lengthening and reconstruction. Further survival studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of these techniques.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Bernard Dallemagne, Jan 08, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Replacement conduits carry significant morbidity in long gap esophageal atresia. Surgical myotomies can lengthen the esophagus, but have not gained widespread adoption due to long-term dilatation. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of an emerging minimally invasive technique of submucosal endoscopic myotomy for esophageal lengthening. Bilateral submucosal lengthening endoscopic myotomies (BSLEM) were performed in three swine. Circular esophageal muscle fibers were selectively divided in a bilateral 3 cm longitudinal pattern. Ex-vivo tensile testing was performed on the BSLEM and compared with three circular myotomies, three spiral myotomies, and three controls. BSLEM was completed in all cases with one esophageal microperforation. The mean operating time was 38 minutes. Over physiologic force ranges of 0 to 100 g, the percentage esophageal elongation was significantly different among the four groups (p<0.05). Spiral myotomy enabled the maximal lengthening among the techniques. BSLEM enabled lengthening significantly greater than controls, but less than both types of surgical myotomy. BSELM is feasible and allows significant esophageal lengthening. Unlike surgical myotomies, BSELM enables selective division of circular fibers to potentially preserve perfusion near the anastomosis and prevent long-term dilatation. Studies are ongoing to characterize the ideal pattern of selective endoscopic myotomy and long-term effects.European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2012; 22(3):217-21. DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1308711
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ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: MAGNAMOSIS forms a compression anastomosis using self-assembling magnetic rings that can be delivered via flexible endoscopy. The system has proven to be effective in full-thickness porcine small-bowel anastomoses. The aim of this study was to show the feasibility of the MAGNAMOSIS system in hybrid endoscopic colorectal surgery and to compare magnetic and conventional stapled anastomoses. Methods: A total of 16 swine weighing 35 - 50 kg were used following animal ethical committee approval. The first animal was an acute model to establish the feasibility of the procedure. The subsequent 15 animals were survival models, 10 of which underwent side-to-side anastomoses (SSA) and 5 of which underwent end-to-side (ESA) procedures. Time to patency, surveillance endoscopy, burst pressure, compression force, and histology were assessed. Histology was compared with conventional stapled anastomoses. Magnetic compression forces were measured in various anastomosis configurations.Results: Colorectal anastomoses were performed in all cases using a hybrid NOTES technique. The mean operating time was 71 minutes. Mean time to completion of the anastomosis was similar between the SSA and ESA groups. Burst pressure at 10 days was greater than 95 mmHg in both groups. One complication occurred in the ESA group. Compression force among various configurations of the magnetic rings was significantly different (P < 0.05). Inflammation and fibrosis were similar between magnetic SSA and conventional stapled anastomoses. Conclusion: MAGNAMOSIS was feasible in performing a hybrid NOTES colorectal anastomosis. It has the advantage over circular staplers of precise endoscopic delivery throughout the entire colon. SSA was reliable and effective. A minimum initial compression force of 4 N appears to be required for reliable magnetic anastomoses.Endoscopy 06/2013; 45(8). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1344119