Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of four Sudan dyes in sausage samples.
ABSTRACT A simple and highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the determination of four Sudan dye (I, II, III, and IV) residues in sausage products. The novel molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization using phenylamine-naphthol as the dummy template show high affinity to the four Sudan dyes and were applied as selective sorbents of MISPE-DLLME to overcome the drawbacks of template leakage in quantitative analysis. Good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.005-2.0 μg g(-1) and the average recoveries of the four Sudan dyes at three spiked levels ranged from 86.3 to 107.5%. The MISPE-DLLME-HPLC protocol significantly improved the purification and enrichment of the analytes and eliminated the template leakage of the conventional MISPE on quantitative analysis.
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ABSTRACT: An accurate method based on the use of reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry interfaced with electrospray (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was devised for the determination of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV in hot chilli food samples. A simple sample treatment procedure entailing the use of an extraction step with acetone without clean-up was developed. A C18 column with an aqueous formic acid/methanol mixture as the mobile phase was used under isocratic conditions. Mass spectral acquisition was done in positive ion mode by applying selected reaction monitoring of three fragmentation transitions per compound to provide a high degree of selectivity. The method was in-house validated in terms of detection limits (LOD), quantitation limits (LOQ), linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, recovery, and selectivity on two kinds of hot chilli sauces. Good results in the low ng/g level were obtained for LOD and LOQ of all analytes in matrices. Under both intra-day repeatability (R.S.D. between 1 and 13%) and intermediate precision (about 5-15% R.S.D. for both chilli sauce matrices) conditions, precision proved to be typical of determinations based on electrospray LC-MS and acceptable for routine monitoring purposes. Extraction recoveries for all four azo-dyes in chilli tomato sauce ranged from 92 to 103% at a spiking level of 5 microg/kg, whereas values between 72 and 97% were calculated in chilli tomato and cheese sauce at the same concentration level. The applicability of the method to the determination of Sudan azo-dyes in hot chilli products was demonstrated.Journal of Chromatography 08/2004; 1042(1-2):123-30. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This short review aims to present, in clear English, a summary of the principal synthetic considerations pertaining to good practice in the polymerisation aspects of molecular imprinting, and is primarily aimed at researchers familiar with molecular imprinting methods but with little or no prior experience in polymer synthesis. It is our hope that this will facilitate researchers to plan their own syntheses of molecular imprints in a more logical and structured fashion, and to begin to appreciate the limitations of the present synthetic approaches in this molecularly complex area, as well as the scope for rationally designing improved imprinted materials in the future.Journal of Chromatography B 06/2004; 804(1):173-82. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past, azo colorants based on benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (o-dianisidine) have been synthesized in large amounts and numbers. Studies in exposed workers have demonstrated that the azoreduction of benzidine-based dyes occurs in man. The metabolic conversion of benzidine-, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine- and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes to their (carcinogenic) amine precursors in vivo is a general phenomenon that must be considered for each member of this class of chemicals. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of the benzidine-based dyes has caused bladder cancer in humans. However, in contrast to water-soluble dyes, the question of biological azoreduction of (practically insoluble) pigments has been a matter of discussion. As a majority of azo pigments are based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, much of the available experimental data are focused on this group. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies performed with pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine did not show a carcinogenic effect. The absence of a genotoxic effect has been supported by mutagenicity studies with the 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based Pigment Yellow 12. Studies in which azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had been orally administered to rats, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys could generally not detect significant amounts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine in the urine. It, therefore, appears well established that the aromatic amine components from azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine are practically not bioavailable. Hence, it is very unlikely that occupational exposure to insoluble azo pigments would be associated with a substantial risk of (bladder) cancer in man. According to current EU regulations, azo dyes based on benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine have been classified as carcinogens of category 2 as "substances which should be regarded as if they are carcinogenic to man". This is not the case for 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based azo pigments.Toxicology Letters 07/2004; 151(1):203-10. · 3.15 Impact Factor