Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease.

Renal Research Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Butterfield Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia.
Marine Drugs (Impact Factor: 3.98). 01/2011; 9(3):447-65. DOI: 10.3390/md9030447
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) are believed to benefit cardiovascular system. The combined effect of FO and ASX on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated. Astaxanthin was dissolved in flaxseed oil to a final concentration of 1g/kg (FO + ASX). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was lard (HFD) or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX (50 mg ASX/kg diet) or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX (100 mg ASX/kg diet) or FO + ASX (200 mg ASX/kg diet) for 10 weeks. The combination of FO and ASX significantly increased the antioxidant defense capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma. Evident decreases in the levels TG, TC and LDL-C contents, as well as IL-6 and CRP were also observed in plasma of FO and ASX fed rats. The combination of FO and ASX can improve oxidative stress, lipid abnormalities and inflammation, providing evidence that the combination of FO and ASX could be a promising functional food in cardiovascular health promotion.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 04/2014; 13(1):63. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with aging. Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant and has been reported to prevent various ROS-induced diseases. In the current study, we investigated the effect of astaxanthin on age-associated histological and mRNA changes of vocal folds. Study design: Prospective animal experiment with control. Methods: Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a normal powder diet with 0.01% (w/w) astaxanthin (aged Ast-treated group) or without astaxanthin (aged sham-treated group). After 12 months of feeding, the larynges were harvested for histology, immunohistochemical detection of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and quantitative real-time PCR for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Thirteen-week-old rats were used as a young control group (young group). Results: The expression of 4-HNE, an oxidative stress marker, significantly increased in the two aged groups compared to the young group. Histological examination showed that the deposition of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the aged sham-treated group compared to the young group, but no significant difference was observed between the aged Ast-treated group and the young group. There were no significant differences in the mRNA expression of bFGF and HGF between the aged Ast-treated group and the young group, although the expression of these genes was significantly reduced in the aged sham-treated group as compared to the young group. Conclusions: These results suggest that astaxanthin has the potential to attenuate age-associated changes of vocal folds.
    The Laryngoscope 04/2014; · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microalgae are huge natural sources of high-value compounds with health-promoting properties. The carotenoids derived from microalgae have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which allow them to provide health benefits. In this article, the bioactivities of microalgal carotenoids are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on astaxanthin, a ketocarotenoid with extraordinary potential for protecting against a wide range of diseases.
    Food & function. 01/2014;

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014