Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets as Add-on Therapy to Psychostimulants in Children and Adolescents With ADHD

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 06/2011; 127(6):e1406-13. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1260
Source: PubMed


To assess the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) combined with stimulants (ie, methylphenidate or amphetamine) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, children and adolescents with hyperactive- or combined-subtype ADHD who had an inadequate response to their stable stimulant regimen were randomized to receive CLON-XR or placebo in combination with their baseline stimulant medication. Predefined efficacy measures evaluated change from baseline to week 5. Safety was assessed by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiogram recordings, and clinical laboratory values. Improvement from baseline for all efficacy measures was evaluated using analysis of covariance.
Of 198 patients randomized, 102 received CLON-XR plus stimulant and 96 received placebo plus stimulant. At week 5, greater improvement from baseline in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score (95% confidence interval: -7.83 to -1.13; P = .009), ADHD-RS-IV hyperactivity and inattention subscale scores (P = .014 and P = .017, respectively), Conners' Parent Rating Scale scores (P < .062), Clinical Global Impression of Severity (P = .021), Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (P = .006), and Parent Global Assessment (P = .001) was observed in the CLON-XR plus stimulant group versus the placebo plus stimulant group. Adverse events and changes in vital signs in the CLON-XR group were generally mild.
The results of this study suggest that CLON-XR in combination with stimulants is useful in reducing ADHD in children and adolescents with partial response to stimulants.

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    • "The AAP ADHD guideline also indicated that both guanfacine and clonidine have evidence to support their usage as adjunctive therapy with stimulants (Waxmonsky, 2003; Steinhoff, 2004; Biederman and Spencer, 2004; Spencer et al., 2002; Pliszka et al., 2006; Daviss et al., 2008, AAP Subcommittee on ADHD, 2011). Additionally, a randomized control trial (n=198) demonstrated the safety and clinical efficacy of using extended-release clonidine in combination with stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD experiencing a partial response to stimulants (Kollins et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Until the recent approval of methylphenidate (MPH), Japan had no approved treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The need still exists for an effective, safe, nonstimulant treatment. This first placebo-controlled Japan study of an ADHD nonstimulant therapy assessed atomoxetine efficacy and safety to determine the optimal dose for controlling ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 245 Japanese children and adolescents, aged 6-17 years and diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of three atomoxetine doses (0.5, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/kg per day) over 8 weeks. Symptoms were assessed with the Japanese Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator scored and integrated with teacher reports (ADHD RS-IV-J:I/Sch). Adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained for safety analysis. In all, 234 patients completed the study. Atomoxetine at 1.8 mg/kg per day was significantly superior to placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms (p = 0.01; one-sided). Decreased appetite and vomiting were significantly greater in the atomoxetine treatment groups; however, no clinically significant differences were observed. Two patients discontinued due to affect lability and headache. A linear dose-response and vital signs similar to those from other atomoxetine studies were observed. Atomoxetine provides an effective and safe nonstimulant option for the treatment of Japanese pediatric patients with ADHD.
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 09/2009; 19(4):341-50. DOI:10.1089/cap.2008.0154 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clonidine has been used off-label in children and adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) with or without comorbidities. Clonidine extended-release was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for ADHD in children. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of clonidine extended-release and clonidine in children and adolescents with ADHD. A search of the Medline database and clinical trials register from 1996-2011 yielded ten clinical trials for critical evaluation of efficacy and safety. Eight of the ten trials reviewed were double-blinded and placebo-controlled. Nine of the ten trials utilized multiple outcome measures. Both clonidine extended-release and clonidine, as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, were reported to be efficacious in treating ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents with or without comorbid disorders in nine of the ten clinical trials. One study showed clonidine to be ineffective in improving performance of a single task, at a specific point in time, in a small number of subjects. All of the studies that evaluated safety reported clonidine and clonidine extended-release to be well tolerated. The side effects of clonidine included somnolence, fatigue, headache, bradycardia, hypotension, and clinically insignificant electrocardiographic changes. However, there are historical anecdotal reports of serious cardiac side effects, including death in cases with other risk factors. None of the studies compared clonidine extended-release with clonidine in subjects with ADHD. Therefore, it is not clear whether clonidine extended-release is advantageous over clonidine, with regard to either efficacy or safety. It is equally unclear whether clonidine or clonidine extended-release is more efficacious in treating ADHD in subjects with comorbid disorders than in those without comorbidities. All the studies reviewed had limitations in their designs and methods. Clonidine and clonidine extended-release could be efficacious and safe for the treatment of ADHD both as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy with stimulant medications in selected patients. There is a need for clinical trials to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of treatment with clonidine and clonidine extended-release in patients with ADHD.
    Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 09/2011; 2:105-112. DOI:10.2147/AHMT.S15672
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