Cord Blood Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis
ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants. Epidemiologic and basic studies suggest that vitamin D may protect against RSV LRTI.
To determine the association between plasma vitamin D concentrations at birth and the subsequent risk of RSV LRTI.
A prospective birth cohort study was performed in healthy term neonates. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in cord blood plasma were related to RSV LRTI in the first year of life, defined as parent-reported LRTI symptoms in a daily log and simultaneous presence of RSV RNA in a nose-throat specimen.
The study population included 156 neonates. Eighteen (12%) developed RSV LRTI. The mean plasma 25-OHD concentration was 82 nmol/L. Overall, 27% of neonates had 25-OHD concentrations < 50 nmol/L, 27% had 50-74 nmol/L and only 46% had 25-OHD 75 nmol/L. Cord blood 25-OHD concentrations were strongly associated with maternal vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy. Concentrations of 25-OHD were lower in neonates who subsequently developed RSV LRTI compared with those who did not (65 nmol/L versus 84 nmol/L, P = .009). Neonates born with 25-OHD concentrations <50 nmol/L had a sixfold (95% confidence interval: 1.6-24.9; P = .01) increased risk of RSV LRTI in the first year of life compared with those with 25-OHD concentrations ≥ 75 nmol/L.
Vitamin D deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with increased risk of RSV LRTI in the first year of life. Intensified routine vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be a useful strategy to prevent RSV LRTI during infancy.
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ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%) ± SE) was lower (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%) ± SE) was also lower (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%) ± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p < 0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women.The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 11/2014; 147:48–55. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.11.020 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are investigations concluding that reduced vitamin D status in pregnancy, may be a risk factor for the development of allergic outcomes in offspring. However, studies on the relationship between cord levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and risk of early childhood wheezing and early-onset atopic dermatitis/food allergy are very limited. To assess the associations between cord blood concentration of 25[OH]D and occurrence of the incidence of wheezing, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, during the first two years of life. We evaluated 240 children by the age of 2 years from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Women were interviewed during pregnancy to collect demographic and socioeconomic data, the medical and reproductive history. At delivery, umbilical cord blood plasma was sampled. The child's health status were examined at approximately 2 years. In the analyses multivariable model was used. Data from 190 participants were included into the analysis. The median value and quartile range of 25[OH]D in cord blood [ng/ml] were as follows: 6.33, 4.16-8.53. 25[OH]D in cord blood below lower quartile increases the risk of multi-triggered wheezing (MTW) in children during first 2 years of life (OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.13-7.00). Higher cord serum level of 25[OH]D reduces the risk of viral induced wheezing (VIW). The cord serum level of 25[OH]D below median value (OR: 6.06; 95% CI: 1.3-28.3) or below lower quartile (OR: 5.43; 95% CI: 1.66-17.7) increases the risk of VIW. All above effects of vitamin D level in cord blood were corrected for the effects other independent risk factors of wheezing and VIW in this cohort. Cord serum 25[OH]D levels were inversely associated with the risk of multi-triggered wheezing, and especially viral-induced wheezing by the age of 2 years, but no association was found with food allergy, atopic dermatitis and frequencies of infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Respiratory Medicine 11/2014; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2014.10.016 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is a leading cause of childhood mortality. Research suggests that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) puts children at risk for ALRI. The purpose of this review is to examine ALRI and VDD in children 5 years and younger. Common etiologies, diagnosis, prevention, treatment of ALRI, and recommendations for vitamin D supplementation are summarized. Databases were searched for studies investigating VDD and ALRI in children. Independent reviewers assessed the internal validity of the studies. Of 18 studies examined, VDD was found to be associated with increased risk or severity of ALRI in 13 studies; associations were not found in 4 studies. In one study it was found that high maternal vitamin D levels was associated with ALRI in infants. Vitamin D supplementation is a low-cost, low-risk intervention that providers should consider for children, especially those at high risk for ALRI. Practitioners should follow current recommendations when prescribing vitamin D supplementation for infants and children. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Pediatric Health Care 11/2014; 28(6):572-82. DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2014.08.013 · 1.97 Impact Factor