Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Such infections have increased in several countries recently and at a time when community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have emerged globally. We examined changes in Australian hospitalisations for the treatment of cutaneous abscesses between 1999 and 2008, a period when increased numbers of CA-MRSA infections were being reported. National hospitalisation data for cutaneous abscess treatment (1999-2008) were examined. Hospitalisation numbers were collated and age-specific admission rates calculated and examined for changes over time. Yearly admissions for the treatment of cutaneous abscesses increased by 48%, from 8,849 (1999-2000) to 13,126 (2007-2008). The crude annual hospitalisation rate per 100,000 population rose from 46 to 62 respectively. However, increases in admission rates were limited to the 10 to 54 years age range. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for final versus baseline year admission rates for these age groups ranged from 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.78) for those aged 10-14 years to 1.64 (95% CI 1.26-2.12) for those aged 45-49 years; p<0.05. Increases in hospitalisation for cutaneous abscess treatment have occurred in Australia during the last decade. Research into the underlying causes and prevention of these infections is a public health priority.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the United States. Seasonal variation of MRSA infections in hospital settings has been widely observed. However, systematic time-series analysis of incidence data is desirable to understand the seasonality of community acquired (CA)-MRSA infections at the population level. In this paper, using data on monthly SSTI incidence in children aged 0-19 years and enrolled in Medicaid in Maricopa County, Arizona, from January 2005 to December 2008, we carried out time-series and nonlinear regression analysis to determine the periodicity, trend, and peak timing in SSTI incidence in children at different age: 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years. We also assessed the temporal correlation between SSTI incidence and meteorological variables including average temperature and humidity. Our analysis revealed a strong annual seasonal pattern of SSTI incidence with peak occurring in early September. This pattern was consistent across age groups. Moreover, SSTIs followed a significantly increasing trend over the 4-year study period with annual incidence increasing from 3.36% to 5.55% in our pediatric population of approximately 290,000. We also found a significant correlation between the temporal variation in SSTI incidence and mean temperature and specific humidity. Our findings could have potential implications on prevention and control efforts against CA-MRSA.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60872. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060872 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the US. We developed an age-structured compartmental model to study the spread of CA-MRSA at the population level and assess the effect of control intervention strategies. We used Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) techniques to parameterize our model using monthly time series data on SSTIs incidence in children (≤19 years) during January 2004 -December 2006 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Our model-based forecast for the period January 2007-December 2008 also provided a good fit to data. We also carried out an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on the control reproduction number, [Formula: see text] which we estimated at 1.3 (95% CI [1.2,1.4]) based on the model fit to data. Using our calibrated model, we evaluated the effect of typical intervention strategies namely reducing the contact rate of infected individuals owing to awareness of infection and decolonization strategies targeting symptomatic infected individuals on both [Formula: see text] and the long-term disease dynamics. We also evaluated the impact of hypothetical decolonization strategies targeting asymptomatic colonized individuals. We found that strategies focused on infected individuals were not capable of achieving disease control when implemented alone or in combination. In contrast, our results suggest that decolonization strategies targeting the pediatric population colonized with CA-MRSA have the potential of achieving disease elimination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely due to the relative geographic isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 MRSA (‘Queensland clone’) and CC75 S. aureus (‘S. argenteus’) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (‘Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Māori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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