Chronic inflammation has been considered a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in the innate immune response to pathogens and in cross talk between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. In this study, sequence variants in the TLR4 gene were investigated to determine whether they were associated with prostate cancer risk in a Korean cohort.
An association study between 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR4 gene and prostate cancer was performed in 463 Korean male subjects including 240 prostate cancer patients and 223 healthy controls. SNPs were genotyped using the TaqMan assay, and their association with the risk of prostate cancer was evaluated using logistic regression analysis.
The statistical analysis revealed that one SNP at the 3'UTR (rs11536889) showed significant association with the risk of prostate cancer (P (corr) = 0.005, OR = 1.81). One common haplotype (ht2) was also significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (P (corr) = 0.009, OR = 1.77). However, further analysis showed no association between any of the SNPs and prostate cancer prognostic factors such as the Gleason score or tumor stage.
The findings of this study suggest that polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene might be associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men.
"Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 were reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk in several studies (53–58). Sequence variants in TLR gene cluster (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) were also reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk (51, 52). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.
Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:352. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00352
"Interestingly, this polymorphism has been shown not only to be relevant to gastric pathologies but also to other inflammation-related cancers. For example, two studies have shown a statistically significant association to exist between TLR4 rs11536889 and the risk of prostate cancer , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to Helicobacter pylori infection, host genetic factors contribute to gastric cancer (GC). Recognition of H. pylori is known to involve Toll-like receptors (TLR), which subsequently leads to activation of NF-κB. Thus, the overall aim of this study was to estimate for the first time the pooled effect size of polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 on GC development through a meta-analysis.
A case-control study comprising 284 ethnic Chinese individuals (70 non-cardia GC cases and 214 functional dyspepsia controls) was conducted for the genotyping of TLR2 -196 to -174del, CD14 -260 C/T and TLR4 rs11536889 using PCR, RT-PCR and mass spectrometry. Case-control studies of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 polymorphisms and GC were searched up to June 2012. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by means of the random effects model.
In our ethnic Chinese case-control study, the TLR4 rs11536889 C allele increased the risk of GC (OR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.23-2.92) while the CD14 -260 T allele was protective (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42-0.91). TLR2 -196 to -174 increased the risk of GC only in H. pylori-infected individuals (OR: 3.10, 95%CI: 1.27-7.60). In the meta-analysis, TLR4 Asp299Gly showed borderline results in the general analysis (pooled OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 0.98-2.60), nevertheless, stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that the mutant allele was a definitive risk factor for GC in Western populations (pooled OR: 1.87, 95%CI: 1.31-2.65). There was a potential association between the TLR2 -196 to -174 deletion allele and GC in Japanese (pooled OR: 1.18, 95%CI: 0.96-1.45). TLR4 Thr399Ile did not provide significant results.
TLR4 rs11536889 and CD14 -260 C/T are associated with non-cardia GC in Chinese. Based on our meta-analysis, the TLR signalling pathway is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, TLR4 Asp299Gly and TLR2 -196 to -174del showing associations with GC in an ethnic-specific manner.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60327. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060327 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive research on the topic, glioma etiology remains largely unknown. Exploration of potential interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of immune genes is a promising new area of glioma research. The case-only study design is a powerful and efficient design for exploring possible multiplicative interactions between factors that are independent of one another. The purpose of our study was to use this exploratory design to identify potential pair wise SNP-SNP interactions from genes involved in several different immune-related pathways for investigation in future studies.
The study population consisted of two case groups: 1,224 histologic confirmed, non-Hispanic white glioma cases from the United States and a validation population of 634 glioma cases from the United Kingdom. Polytomous logistic regression, in which one SNP was coded as the outcome and the other SNP was included as the exposure, was utilized to calculate the ORs of the likelihood of cases simultaneously having the variant alleles of two different SNPs. Potential interactions were examined only between SNPs located in different genes or chromosomes.
Using this data mining strategy, we found 396 significant SNP-SNP interactions among polymorphisms of immune-related genes that were present in both the U.S. and U.K. study populations.
This exploratory study was conducted for the purpose of hypothesis generation, and thus has provided several new hypotheses that can be tested using traditional case-control study designs to obtain estimates of risk.
This is the first study, to our knowledge, to take this novel approach to identifying SNP-SNP interactions relevant to glioma etiology.
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