Sequence variants of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men.
ABSTRACT Chronic inflammation has been considered a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in the innate immune response to pathogens and in cross talk between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. In this study, sequence variants in the TLR4 gene were investigated to determine whether they were associated with prostate cancer risk in a Korean cohort.
An association study between 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR4 gene and prostate cancer was performed in 463 Korean male subjects including 240 prostate cancer patients and 223 healthy controls. SNPs were genotyped using the TaqMan assay, and their association with the risk of prostate cancer was evaluated using logistic regression analysis.
The statistical analysis revealed that one SNP at the 3'UTR (rs11536889) showed significant association with the risk of prostate cancer (P (corr) = 0.005, OR = 1.81). One common haplotype (ht2) was also significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (P (corr) = 0.009, OR = 1.77). However, further analysis showed no association between any of the SNPs and prostate cancer prognostic factors such as the Gleason score or tumor stage.
The findings of this study suggest that polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene might be associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men.
SourceAvailable from: Alexander Maximiliaan Eggermont[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:352. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00352
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered as a multifactorial disorder involving complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, where immune dysfunction is thought to play a key etiopathogenic role. In particular, excess of winter births associated with early-life infections raise the possibility of the implication of innate immunity. Given the pivotal role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), a major innate immune sensor molecule, we hypothesized that genetic variations of TLR-4 may be associated to BD. Genomic DNAs from 572 BD patients and 202 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed for the distribution of six single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) scattered along the TLR-4 locus (rs1927914, rs10759932, rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536889 and rs11536891). Associations between BD and these polymorphisms were examined using the Chi-square test. We found that rs1927914 AA and rs11536891 TT genotype are more frequent in BD patients than in controls (corrected p; pc=.02 and .02 respectively) particularly in early-onset BD patients (pc=.004 and .006) born during the summer season (pc=.02 and .002 respectively). We also found that rs4986790 AG and rs4986791 CT genotypes were significantly associated with presence of autoimmune thyroiditis (pc=.002). Our results are to be confirmed by replication in independent BD cohorts. We report for the first time a genetic association between BD and TLR-4 a major player of innate immunity. Possible mechanisms underlying bipolar disorders linking altered TLR-4 expression and increased susceptibility to infections and/or autoimmunity are discussed.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2013; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.043 · 3.71 Impact Factor