PKB signaling and atrogene expression in skeletal muscle of aged mice.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if PKB signaling is decreased and contractile protein degradation is increased in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from middle-aged (MA) and aged (AG) mice. We also examined the effect of age on atrogene expression in quadriceps muscle. PKB activity, as assessed by Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, was significantly higher in EDL and SOL muscles from AG than MA mice. The age-related increase in PKB activity appears to be due to an increase in expression of the kinase, as PKB-α and PKB-β levels were significantly higher in EDL and SOL muscles from AG than MA mice. The phosphorylation of forkhead box 3a (FOXO3a) on Thr(32), a PKB target, was significantly higher in EDL muscles from AG than MA mice. The rate of contractile protein degradation was similar in EDL and SOL muscles from AG and MA mice. Atrogin-1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 (MuRF-1) mRNA levels did not change in muscles from AG compared with MA mice, indicating that ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis does not contribute to sarcopenia. A significant decrease in Bcl-2 and 19-kDa interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and GABA receptor-associated protein 1 (Gabarap1) mRNA was observed in muscles from AG compared with MA mice, which may contribute to age-related contractile dysfunction. In conclusion, the mechanisms responsible for sarcopenia are distinct from experimental models of atrophy and do not involve atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 or enhanced proteolysis. Finally, a decline in autophagy-related gene expression may provide a novel mechanism for impaired contractile function and muscle metabolism with advancing age.
- SourceAvailable from: Emanuela Longa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cellular basis of age-related tissue deterioration remains largely obscure. The ability to activate compensatory mechanisms in response to environmental stress is an important factor for survival and maintenance of cellular functions. Autophagy is activated both under short and prolonged stress and is required to clear the cell of dysfunctional organelles and altered proteins. We report that specific autophagy inhibition in muscle has a major impact on neuromuscular synaptic function and, consequently, on muscle strength, ultimately affecting the lifespan of animals. Inhibition of autophagy also exacerbates aging phenotypes in muscle, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and profound weakness. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress directly affect acto-myosin interaction and force generation but show a limited effect on stability of neuromuscular synapses. These results demonstrate that age-related deterioration of synaptic structure and function is exacerbated by defective autophagy.Cell reports. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of muscle have led to new interest in the pharmacological treatment of muscle wasting. Loss of muscle mass and increased intramuscular fibrosis occur in both sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy. Several regulators (mammalian target of rapamycin, serum response factor, atrogin-1, myostatin, etc.) seem to modulate protein synthesis and degradation or transcription of muscle-specific genes during both sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy. This review provides an overview of the adaptive changes in several regulators of muscle mass in both sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 08/2014; 6:230. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) and Muscle Atrophy F-Box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 were identified over ten years ago as two muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are transcriptionally increased in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions, making them excellent markers of muscle atrophy. In the past ten years much has been published about MuRF1 and MAFbx with respect to their mRNA expression patterns under atrophy-inducing conditions, their transcriptional regulation, and their putative substrates. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of both genes in the regulation of mass and other cellular functions in striated muscle. While both MuRF1 and MAFbx are enriched in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle, this review will focus on the current understanding of MuRF1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle, highlighting the critical questions that remain to be answered.American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. 08/2014;